Behavioral and Brain Sciences article
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to a form of intelligence that machines exhibit. As the capability of devices increases, the facilities that were initially thought as needing intelligence, do not fit with the definition anymore. For instance, optical character recognition no longer serves as a form of AI since it has emerged as regular technology. The capabilities that presently deserve classification, as AI comprise of comprehending human speech, self-driving vehicles, interpreting multifaceted data and rivaling at high-intensity games such as Pokemon Go and chess. However, certain individuals believe that with contemporary developments taking place in the field of AI, they will pose a danger to humanity in case they progress in at the present pace. Hence, in this paper, I will discuss the various arguments from distinct authors concerning AI developments and the potential influence the programs would have toward the society.
According to the article Behavioral and Brain Sciences," John Searle focuses on exploring the repercussions associated with two fundamental propositions. The first suggestion is that the kind of intentionality that human beings, as well as animals, portray serves as a product of the causal features apparent in their brains. In the author's viewpoint, this might be an empirical fact concerning the real causal relations that prevail between brains and mental processes. Here, the individual operations in the brain are enough to support intentionality. Secondly, the author stipulates that instantiating a program in a computer does not satisfy the intentionality condition. Therefore, the entire paper focuses on establishing the claim proposed. The major area of emphasis in this sense is to reveal that it is possible for a human being to instantiate a program but might lack the pertinent intentionality. Concerning the two propositions, they show certain repercussions (Searle 418).
A Furtive Transformation
For instance, the explanation concerning the way the brain is responsible for producing intentionality does not mean that it does so through instantiating a program in a computer. This serves as a strict logical consequence associated with the first and second proposition that Searle makes. Any form of mechanism that has the capacity for establishing intentionality should have powers that match those of a human brain, although this serves as a trivial consequence associated with the initial argument made by the author. Any effort aimed at creating artificial intentionality, which in this case the author refers to as strong AI), cannot emerge successfully through designing programs. Nevertheless, it would need to reproduce causal powers affiliated with the human drain. In this sense, the major question that the author raises is whether a machine can think. The primary argument I have realized in this sense is that only a unique form of a machine would have the capacity to think. The kind of device in this sense would be the one having causal powers internally, such as those of human brains. Therefore, strong AI fails to give sufficient information concerning thinking. This is mostly because it revolves around programs as opposed to machines. As such, no program has the capacity of thinking on its own (Searle 419).
In the perspective of Fredrick Kile in the article Intelligence and Society: A Furtive Transformation," the author takes the reader to the 1950s. During this time, notable enthusiasm concerning whether it is possible for artificial intelligence to surpass the intelligence possessed by humans prevailed. From that time, technology has played a vital role regarding changing the society considerably. As a result, important studies have been directed toward the capacity of the community in adapting to the changes in technology. Technologies in line with the rapid advancements witnessed in communications weaken the ability of the society concerning integrating to the bigger social structure the individuals who lack or have little education. The reason for this is that by considering the recent utilization of communication by the excluded individuals has mostly been disruptive rather than integrative. The merging of socioeconomic initiatives and the broader systems has contributed to dehumanizing influences toward individuals hindered from participating in the recent trends. Jobs are vanishing at a rising rate. Markets are also creating demand for goods that impose stress on the environment globally, even while the world lacks the capacity for yielding resources that can address the needs of all individuals (Kile 108).
Artificial Intelligence article
Petroleum and mining corporations are pushing deeper to the challenging environments, including seabed mining and deep mines to allow meet the rising demands. The activities are becoming expensive while the prices of resources are rising rapidly. These activities are further excluding the individuals who lack the capacity of affording the resources. The influence of the large-scale programs toward the society has contributed to tremendous idleness, while at the same time creating a breeding ground for violent reaction since the unemployed people are seeking to blame the powerful people and the bigger societal structure to meet their needs. Perhaps the influence of the large-scale programs toward the society has eroded the essential traits affiliated with humanness. Human beings are feeling socially useless. At the same time, machines are not showing any signs of empathy or emotion. In this sense, one would question as to whether the cost associated with the technological progress it to high. As such, I think that with the advancements realized in technology, especially the development of artificial intelligence, we might generate more fears given the widespread fear and tension that is spreading among people across the world concerning the technology (Kile 109).
According to Margaret Boden in the article Artificial Intelligence: Cannibal or Missionary?, the author reveals that the major concerns that people have toward AI comprise of its misuses, its influence on unemployment, as well as the capacity for dehumanizing. However, contrary to the beliefs and fears that people have toward AI, it might contribute to respect for enormous power and increased human mind's complexity. People should refrain from attributing their power to computer systems, but rather focus on the commonsensical things. Here, irrespective of how effective AI systems appear, it is vital to lay emphasis on their limitations rather than abrogate the responsibility of humans to such systems. This way, it would be possible to generate positive perceptions among the people about the usefulness of the systems, thus lead people to put them into productive use (Boden 652).
Gonenc Gurkaynak's article Stifling Artificial Intelligence
In Gonenc Gurkaynak's article Stifling Artificial Intelligence: Human Perils," the author reveals that even though numerous scientists have calculated the potential positive influences of AI to welfare, fear mongering is still prevalent, hence hindering the effective development of AI. In case the regulations apparent in the sector suppress the active imagination of human beings, we shall be wasting the real dynamic efficiencies that AI has to offer. Future AI thinkers would perceive our efforts as geared toward spoiling innovative human advancement. Since the article mostly revolves around AI's philosophical introduction, it aims at categorizing AI to shed more light on what he have now as well as what we should expect from future advancements in technology. In this sense, I believe that it is essential to consider implementing AI further in such a way that we will be in a position to expand our horizons. We well manage to regulate AI from a legal standpoint as well as discuss the ideal legal mechanisms we should follow to make sure that we create a balance between AI and sufficient control toward them. This way, we shall be in a position to come up with friendly AI in the future rather than generate fear among people (Gurkaynak 750).
Jay Ye's article Artificial Intelligence for Pathologists Is Not Near--It Is Here revolves around the tasks that pathologists undertake, which entails interpreting slides in a professional manner. They also handle secretarial tasks that involve translating the interpretations to come up with comprehensive pathology reports. The process of interpreting the reports is cumbersome and time-consuming. In this sense, a need has arisen for developing a program that can assist in the tasks, such as the Secretary Mimicking Artificial Intelligence (SMILE). SMILE is an assortment of computer applications, which work in line with listening to voice commands as well as view any window changes that result from scanning barcodes. SMILE has the capacity of responding to the inputs by acting upon programs, such as Arizona, Tuscon, Microsoft Word, and Sunquest Information Systems among other applications (Ye 929).
Moreover, the SMILE application also communicates appropriate information to pathologists through the speakers of a computer and the screen's message box. Since SMILE can perform various secretarial tasks in an intelligent manner, it provides pathologists with the opportunity for laying emphasis on interpretation. They manage to minimize errors, increase productivity, and reduce daily practice stress. In this sense, therefore, it is apparent that AI for pathologists is robust and feasible. As such, it is clear that widespread AI use in future by professionals will play a fundamental role in term of transforming how human beings practice psychology and other professions. Therefore, increased use of AI will play a critical role in boosting people's productivity in their diverse areas of professionalism (Ye 930).
In conclusion, the growing adoption of AI in various areas of professionalism is generating fears ad well as optimism as we head toward the future. Given the violent nature of human beings, for instance, some people fear that increased AI adoption would lead people to use the technology for violent and destructive purposes. Others believe that if AI is well nurtured, it will make a notable contribution to human development today and into the future. Therefore, it is essential to put in place sufficient regulations, which can ensure that AI is used for productive purposes, which will play a vital role regarding supporting human advancement considerably. Therefore, AI should not be considered as positive or negative, but it will depend on how a man decides to use it. He can use it for advancing the society or destroy the society, as we know it, especially if it lands into wrong hands.
BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Boden, Margaret. "Artificial Intelligence: Cannibal or Missionary?" AI & Society. 21.4 (2007): 651-657. Print
Gurkaynak, Gonenc. "Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils." Computer Law & Security Review. 32.5 (2016): 749-758. Print.
Kile, Frederick. "Artificial Intelligence and Society: A Furtive Transformation." AI & Society. 28.1 (2013): 107-115. Print
Searle, John R. "Minds, brains and programs." Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3.3 (1980): 417-457. Print
Ye, Jay Y. "Artificial Intelligence for Pathologists Is Not Near--It Is Here." Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 139.7 (2015): 929-935. Print
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