In the discussion of obesity, one controversial issue has been that the pandemic has increased drastically among the residents in the United States. Its effects are causing a rise in medical expenses, high death rates, stigma among the affected individuals, and also discrimination in some places. This paper analyzes the detrimental effects of obesity in America by detailing numerous dangers associated with the menace. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), obesity is a condition where people weigh more than 20% of their standard weights. Apart from weight, the medical practitioners also focus on the individual's height, sex, and build (Kline et al. 20). Obesity is a threat to patients who have type 2 diabetes, heart complications, malignant diseases and depression. According to statistics, nearly 65% of the American adults are suffering from obesity, or have been noted to be overweight (Herndon & April 517). For the last two decades, this pandemic has been rated among the dangerous diseases in the United States.
Cases of overweight among children have tripled since 1970 as compared to other previous years. Currently, 16% of teens between the age of 6 and 19 have abnormal weights. The levels of pediatric obesity affect families, friends, relatives, and the government as a whole (Leidy 55). The problem of being obese reflects itself in old ages especially when it is not treated during the childhood stage. The scenarios of overweight and those of obesity are sky-rocketing in the ethnic minority residents as well as the people who experience lower socioeconomic status. Health and medical care systems are feeling a severe burden on individuals who have obesity.
Various theories have been formulated to explain the cause, effects and the preventive measures of obesity. Examples of these theories include the cognitive psychology theory, the psychosomatic theory, and the homeostatic theory which is directing the medical practitioners on the best techniques to use in health departments to curb overweight (Rosenthal et al. 1450). On the other hand, there are other theories such as pica theory which holds on the fact that people become fat as a result of eating an inappropriate portion of diet (Mosby, Ian & Laura 76). The last theory is the fat-start-theory that focuses on the number of lipids in the bodies of people. However, all the arguments are having similar concepts regarding this abnormality. The theories also use different approaches to present their concerns.
The objectives of the research like establishing the meaning of specific terms used in obesity, identifying the repercussion of being overweight, determining the poor diet that causes health complications among the Americans, and providing a clear framework that can be adopted in coming up with skilled medical practitioners who can handle the cases of obesity efficiently are aspects that doctors consider. They use secondary sources like journals, periodicals, textbooks, and articles to find reliable information on obesity.
Increasing deaths of persons who lack awareness of the disease is the main reason why people research obesity in America. The government, non-governmental organisations, well-wishers, families, and friends spend more time and money for the medication of this pandemic. However, inadequate research regarding diabetes has been conducted, a situation that is triggering people's conscience to research on the disease.
The literature concerning obesity states that the health of people is controlled by homeostasis, which is a characteristic that occurs in all organs that have life. The process of homeostasis keeps the balance at designated points by the use of loops so that human beings' bodies can function well. However, lack of balance in homeostasis results in overweight. Apart from the United States, over one billion persons are victims of obesity in the entire globe (Mosby, Ian & Laura 76). New theories such as the pica theory have a prevailing hypothesis that obesity is a "Circle of Discontent" which connects between the weight of the body, unfavourable effect, and more consumption of food.
Statistics by Surgeon General of 1991 (171) indicates that 61% of the grown-ups and 13% of the teens are overweight. Today, the number has risen significantly to almost twice the initial figure of 20 years from then. Moreover, Dr David Satcher, the American surgeon, highlights that the value has increased thrice among the adolescents (289). A substantial number of individuals comprehend that overweight and obesity changes the appearance of a person. The worrying factor is that the conditions are consequential to the health troubles which can lead to chronic illness (Mosby, Ian & Laura 76). For instance, many of the Americans who are overweight are exposed to a high peril of developing ailments such as the coronary heart problems, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cancer which can grow in the uterus, mammary glands, colon and the prostates among male.
America holds that over 300,000 deaths occur annually as a result of being overweight in both kids and adults. Children who are six years old have recorded an obesity level of 25% being passed into adulthood. (Rosenthal et al, 1450). In the same case, kids who are twelve years old have 75% chances of also having the same status in their late ages. The cases of obesity are also observed when women become pregnant. More so, ladies complain about this problem at their menopause stages. Almost 75% of the Americans are trying hard to lose weight by physical fitness, using pills, avoiding poor diet, reading articles on obesity, and attending guiding and counselling sessions.
Many Factors are contributing to obesity in the United States. Such factors include genetic inheritance where people from the same family are inheriting genes which they pass to their children (Thomas 164). Americans are also experiencing obesity due to the existence of social-environment aspects. Furthermore, obesity is being caused by the ignorance among some American residents. Ignorance is brought by the failure to observe the rule of taking healthy nutritional diets. Furthermore, obesity is rampant in America because the citizens purchase food in excess and then consume a large number of same nutrients. Failure to carry out exercise in the field or at the place of gyms also results in the conditions of being overweight.
On the other hand, teens are becoming overweight due to numerous factors. Experts who have the content in health put that failure to attend classes of the gym is among the contributors of obesity in children. Also, an increase in sedentary lifestyle such as playing computers games, watching television for long hours also leads to obesity (Mosby, Ian & Laura 76).The research holds that about one-third of the Americans carry out exercise for thirty minutes for a maximum of three days in every week. This number is too low as compared to 76% that is required to be conducting physical fitness. 40% of the grown-ups do not engage in any fitness activities.
The most dangerous economic impact of the overweight epidemic is the overspending of medical facilities (Apple & Rima 898). As much as the government and the non-governmental institutions are trying hard to eradicate this disease, there is still a fear that the economic situation will continue to deteriorate because the number of individuals who have obesity is increasing gradually. The annual magnitude of related health costs has been estimated by the Harvard School of Public Health as $ 190 billion per year. Incurring of direct charges by the government in an attempt to curb this disease is worrying the entire world. The situation is unpredictable because it involves the productivity which has been lost by people who are taking leaves to get rest. The other indirect costs include the expenses spent on the transportation costs and the insurance rates that come from either private institutions or the government. A firm which accommodates approximately one thousand employees spend $285, 000 per annum for costs which are linked to the problems of obesity.
Apart from the economic effects, there are health effects which are associated with obesity. Firstly, there is the emergence of high blood pressure which occurs when an extra tissue in the body that requires oxygen to survive is added. The extra pressure pumped by the heart to the moving blood in its vessels adds extra weight to the body (Apple & Rima 898). This situation contributes in bringing abnormalities to the normal functioning of the body. The other health effect is the emergence of diabetes. The primary cause of diabetes 2 is obesity. Initially, this type of diabetes occurred during adulthood, but it is currently happening even in childhood. There are always alterations in the normal functioning of insulin where the hormone that is responsible for blood sugar regulation is tampered with.
Another health effect of obesity and excess weight is development of heart diseases. The arteries usually become hard, ten times more than the average individuals who are not suffering from this ailment. There are deposits which are made in the coronary artery, a state that makes it narrow (Rosenthal et al. 1450). The narrowness brings difficulties in the flow of blood in those vessels. The situation also interferes with the normal functioning of the body. When blood clotting occurs, chest pains are experienced or sometimes heart attack among the vulnerable individuals. Furthermore, there are joint problems which happen to people such as osteoarthritis. The parts which are affected by this condition are the knees as well as the hips. This condition is accompanied by extra weight that is exerted in these joints. These conditions reduce productivity of the labor force.
Still, on the effects of obesity, there are respiratory complications that are experienced by the patients. People stop breathing for some periods as their respiratory system gets blocked. The weight of the chest usually squeezes the lungs to causing restricted breathing system (Dawes & Laura 898). The situation is called sleep apnea, and it results in high blood pressure among the people. There is also an effect of cancer occurrences, especially in women. This type of cancer might occur in breasts, gallbladder and uterus. In men, cancer may occur in the colon, and prostate, depending on the side where weight has been exerted most.
The National Cholesterol Education Program is trying to eliminate the metabolic syndrome which is a major dangerous factor that results from being overweight. This syndrome contains six main components like resistance in the abdomen, insulin component, high or sometimes low levels of glucose content in the body, a rise in the blood pressure, inflammation of the lungs, resistance in the joints, and abdominal obesity (Brosco & Jeffrey 173). If such syndrome occurs to a person, it is advisable to see a technician for medical analysis. The last health effect of obesity is the psychological effects (Apple & Rima 898). The communities where people cherish right body shapes, those who have problems with obesity tend to suffer most. There is usually low self-esteem among them. Furthermore, they tend to have less association with their friends. The society puts much blame on them for being lazy and weak. It takes the abnormalities on the bodies of people intentional acts which result from their will. However, education in such societies can often alter three perspectives on obese individuals.
Treating obesity in America is an ongoing process in many of the health sectors. Proper family education on nutrition, and implementation of the required eating habits in the homesteads contribute to the reduction of obesity levels. The other sector which helps in cur...
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