Briefly state the Main Idea of this article: This article is about the way psychology should understand the childrens private speech. It tells us about the opposite researches that were made in the previous century. The research made by the author ot the article, Laura E. Berk, on this question is based on the Lev S. Vygotskys studies. Laura E. Berks along with Rafael M. Diaz were to confirm the findings of the Russian psychologist and educator. They were studying different questions concerning childrens private speech. They managed to detect the varieties of private speech, why children do it and if private speech helps them in their actions. The main idea is to prove the Vygotskys studies and to describe how valuable private speech is for children.
List three important facts that the author uses to support the Main Idea: Laura E. Berk has made a series of studies testing children. She recorded speech in classrooms, halls and playgrounds. Then she analyzed the records and made a conclusion that comments served to describe childrens actions. It means that self-guidance is the central function of private speech. Laura E. Berks also studied the records that had been made in the classroom where children were working alone at their desks on math problems. As a result, this observation showed that pupils who made many self-guiding comments (practiced private speech) did better. It proves once again the Vygotskys hypothesis that childrens private speech helps them. Another fact that supports the main idea of the article we can find in the Lego-building tests. The results showed that as the childrens skills with Lego blocks improved, their comments became more internalized. It means that as long as a child has some difficulties, he or she will need private speech. And the last fact concerns disabled children. Children who have disabilities use private speech more often as it helps them to control their behavior.
What information or ideas discussed in this article are also discussed in your textbook?
In our textbooks we can find the topic about object permanence. It refers to the idea of the article. It says that children are disposed to comment their activity, to make conclusions aloud and to voice what they think. It helps them to understand things.
What is the conclusion of the author? Do you agree or disagree and why?
Researches based on childrens behavior confirm Vygotskys findings. Private speech is a valuable spontaneous process that helps children in activity and to deal with difficulties. As for me, I completely agree with the author. And I think that the facts above will persuade everybody that aloud self-guiding is very useful for children.
Just the facts
Children use private speech to direct their actions. It helps them to overcome some difficulties. All children have the inclination to self-guiding. They do it aloud. The researches affirms that private speech arises in social experience. And this social experience influences the level of private speech (whether children give aloud comments to their action). We can see the confirmation in the research on the Appalachian children. Another test with puzzles shows that the failure does not coincide with the private speech. Moreover, this test helps to understand that as long as children gain enough skills to bear a problem or to resolve a puzzle (as in the example), they dont need private speech anymore, they dont need this self-guiding. The test with the Lego blocks has shown the same result. Private speech diminishes as performance improves. Here is another fact: children who have more authoritative parents show greater improvement in skills. In this process of improving skills they use self-guiding comments more often. Children with serious learning and behavior problems suffer from the deficit of private speech. To treat them psychologists use training programs that are meant to encourage children to talk to themselves. However, the method of treating such children is not largely investigated. Disabled children use private talk at a later age than children without any disability do.
Private speech is a very important and valuable thing in childrens growth and education.
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