|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Statistics Medicine Nursing care Human services|
Ventilator-Associate Pneumonia (VAP) is a pneumonia disease that develops in two days as a result of mechanical ventilation provided either through tracheostomy or endotracheal tube. It comes as an aftermath of the attack of the lung parenchyma and the respiratory tract by tiny organisms (Alcan, Korkmaz, & Uyar, 2016). VAP is among the popular hospital-acquired infections found in the crucial care structure and is related to many of negative clinical effects. VAP is associated with high rates of multidrug-resistant disease, excess use of antibiotics, more ICU time, and increased mechanical ventilation time, among other issues. This factor leads to a higher general cost of health care for VAP patients. There might not be any association between VAP and high mortality rate, but it is important to note that prevention of VAP is of critical benefit to the patients and the population in general (Hassan & Wahsheh, 2017). The papers seek to discuss the compliance of nurses with measures used for VAP prevention and the concept used to demonstrate how VAP can be prevented successfully. It also seeks to discuss the methods used in preventing VAP and the participants in the sample.
Research Method 1
The study was carried out on 120 nurses working in 11 ICUs found in 4 hospitals. The technique involved nurses who were working in the hospitals in the department of ICU and giving health care to the patient who requires mechanical ventilation for more than two days (Tabaeian, Yazdannik & Abbasi, 2017). The execution of measures used in VAP prevention was assessed through the use of observation and the use of a checklist. In the determination of the reliability, 10 ICUs were observed by the use of a checklist. The result was then analyzed by the use of Cronbach's coefficient, where the coefficient was 0.698, and reliability was assessed by the Wilcoxon test and found to be 0.194. The two evaluators did not show any statistical difference. Compliance was calculated and resulted grouped into 4; 0- 25 percent unacceptable, 25-50 average, 50-75 relatively acceptable, and 75-100 acceptable.
Research Method 2
The research seeks to investigate the implementation of the care bundle on the rate of VAP. The protocol was of three phases. First, the observation was carried to define VAP care bundle observance of the ICU. In the next phase, education was given to the nurses in ICU on VAP care bundle. And on the final phase, the investigation was carried on the effect of VAP care bundle compliance on rates of VAP as a result of education (Alcan et al., 2016). The outcome was that after providing education to the nurses, the VAP care bindles enhanced. The implementation of the VAP care bundle with prepared education based on evidence standards reduced VAP rates.
Research Method 3
The study aim at assessing the efficacy of VAP prevention bundle in decreasing the rate of VAP in the ICU. The study was conducted at the ICU and neonates with mechanical ventilation for more than two days were used (Azab et al., 2015). The research was in two phases; in the first phase, the rate of VAP was evaluated before and after. In the next phase, the implementation of complete preventive standards was thoroughly carried out. The result found that the implementation of the multifaceted infection control bundle led to the reduction of VAP rate during the time of stay in the ICU.
Research Method 4
The research was a survey used to investigate hospitals and nurses compliance with measures for VAP prevention and the factors that influence the level of adherence (Hassan & Wahsheh, 2017). A questionnaire was carried among 471 nurses in ICU from 16 hospitals in the Middle East; Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. The result found that both hospitals and nurses have insufficient compliance with the guidelines.
Research Method 5
The stud is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of semi-recumbent positioning in the prevention of VAP that needs mechanical ventilation. The study also assesses the most significant angle of bed elevation in the semi-recumbent position (Wang, Yang, Tang, Yuan, Deng & Sun, 2016). The study involved 878 participants, and 28 did not follow up. All of them were from the ICU and given mechanical ventilation for more than two days. The result found that there was no significate different in the two positions in the reduction of VAP.
Based on the results, concepts like washing hand by nurses, nurse training, and training on measures of preventing VAP among others should be deliberated. VAP is increasingly becoming a greater challenge for patients with critical illness and has a greater burden on the illness and the cost of health care. It is of importance to also note that, more research that will prioritize clinical results as the fundamental aim will probably lead into a more explained VAP prevention tactics. Considering the technique used; the monitoring system and the measures set for the VAP prevention in the ICU needs proper attention of the hospital managers.
Alcan, A. O., Korkmaz, F. D., & Uyar, M. (2016). Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Use of the care bundle approach. American journal of infection control, 44(10), e173-e176.
Azab, S. F., Sherbiny, H. S., Saleh, S. H., Elsaeed, W. F., Elshafiey, M. M., Siam, A. G., ... & Ismail, S. M. (2015). Reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonatal intensive care unit using "VAP prevention Bundle": a cohort study. BMC infectious diseases, 15(1), 314.
Hassan, Z. M., & Wahsheh, M. A. (2017). Knowledge level of nurses in Jordan on ventilator-associated pneumonia and preventive measures. Nursing in critical care, 22(3), 125-132.
Tabaeian, S. M., Yazdannik, A., & Abbasi, S. (2017). Compliance with the standards for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia by nurses in the intensive care units. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 22(1), 31.
Wang, L., Li, X., Yang, Z., Tang, X., Yuan, Q., Deng, L., & Sun, X. (2016). Semirecumbent position versus supine position for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults requiring mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).
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