|Type of paper:
|Child development Mental disorder Substance abuse Drug abuse
Adolescence is a more delicate phase in development because it involves tremendous cognitive, social, emotional, and physical changes, as well as behavioral changes of adolescence. More imperatively, adolescents are often vulnerable to the use of illegal substances, which has caused mental problems among the youth (Kaess et al., 2014). Notably, many theories have proposed an imbalance in adolescents' brain development due to the risks of the changes in their behaviors, especially the use of illegal substances that lead to the development of their mental and reward structure before the cognitive control structure. The problem is that the decisions made by adolescents are based on the outcome that the brain favors immediately and not the results in the long run.
In the last decade years, studies based on neurocognitive and neuroimaging have attempted to assess the risk factors that come as a result of the use of illegal substances among adolescents and the impact of such substances in the development of the brain. More significantly, most of the studies have concentrated on the use of marijuana and alcohol because such substances are mostly used by the majority of youths in adolescence. Such studies include the IMAGEN which focus on approximately 200 youths in Ireland, France, Germany, and England for eight years, National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence, and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development which has focused on 11500 youths in the United States for ten years (Kaess et al., 2014). Understandably, more research is needed based on the use of illegal substances by adolescents and the effect on mental health and the family.
The Effects of Street Drugs while Using Psychopharmacology Drugs
A significant number of adolescents who use street drugs have demonstrated the occurrence of a psychiatric disorder. Consequently, such adolescents have been prescribed psychopharmacology drugs. More imperatively, a review of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2005 demonstrated approximately 8.2% of adolescents are misusing psychopharmacology drugs, while about 3% of adolescents revealed signs of street drug disorders that correlate to the prescriptions of psychopharmacology drugs that had been experienced in the past (Brandt, King, & EvansBrown, 2014). A review based on the United States death certificates suggested a rapid increase in fatal medication errors due to an increase in the use of street drugs, the increase was shown on adolescents both at home and out of the home. Notably, the most significant medication of the psychiatric comorbidity raises possible concerns; thus, the undesirable relations between street drug abuse and the use of psychopharmacology drugs. The major problem is that the use of street drugs among adolescents adversely affects the use and prescription of psychopharmacology drugs.
It is worth noting that friends, classmates, and family members of adolescents with prescribed medication on the use of street drugs can have access to the agents of psychopharmacology drugs. Additionally, such adolescents may access the family's medications, whether the purpose of the medication is recreational or promoting performance in academics. It is more fundamental to inform such youths who use street drugs and their families about the possible risks which come as a consequence of substance abuse and the adverse impact of misusing psychopharmacology drugs, as well as the abuse of over-the-counter drugs, hence more research is required based on the topic of the use of street drugs and psychopharmacology drugs.
Bullying Among Children with Learning Disorders
Bully among children with learning disorders have been demonstrated in the school culture for many years, and for many decades, bullying has been perpetual for student with learning disorders. More significantly, bullying includes powerful individuals who persistently show destructive behaviors with the motive of causing distress to the less powerful individuals, especially to children with learning disorders in school. Again bullying may take different forms, including verbal, physical, or rational, and can be exhibited in different ways such as hitting, insulting, rejection, threatening, social exclusion, and teasing, among other ways (Espelage, Rose, & Polanin, 2015). Many studies have demonstrated the relationship between bullying and poor performance in school, with bullying being the significant factor that causes low academic achievement in school among children with learning disorders. Notably, victims of bullying in school tend to drop out of school due to a lack of support from the parents as well as a lack of positive peer relations among children with learning disorders.
More imperatively, many studies have shown a high rate of verbal abuse, aggression, and social exclusion among children with learning disorders. However, research has emerged that reveals a high level of children with learning disorders who are also bullies. Therefore, it takes the assumption that the victims may also adopt behaviors and characters that are the same as the bullies, thereby being able to cope with victimization. Other research has also shown that children with learning disorders can experience the effects of bullying regardless of their school environment. Still, children in special education recorded the highest level of bullying compared to those in mainstream education. More research should be based on the topic to identify the impact of bullying among children with learning disorders.
Brandt, S. D., King, L. A., & EvansBrown, M. (2014). The new drug phenomenon. Drug testing and analysis, 6(7-8), 587-597. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/dta.1686
Espelage, D. L., Rose, C. A., & Polanin, J. R. (2015). Social-emotional learning program to reduce bullying, fighting, and victimization among middle school students with disabilities. Remedial and special education, 36(5), 299-311. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0741932514564564
Kaess, M., Brunner, R., Parzer, P., Carli, V., Apter, A., Balazs, J. A., Durkee, T. (2014). Risk-behavior screening for identifying adolescents with mental health problems in Europe. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 23(7), 611-620. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-013-0490-y
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