UN Guidelines on Green House Gas Emission

Published: 2019-06-14 08:02:47
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Greenhouse gases are gases that regulate the earth atmosphere through absorption of heat by sunlight rays and infrared radiation. The precise composition and quantity of these atmospheric gases needs to be constantly monitored to prevent the earth from getting overheated or extremely cold. Reduction of a greenhouse gas such as ozone may cause penetration of harmful sun rays that cause cancer among other complications. This is because ozone gas forms a sun rays shield or filter through its layer. The major greenhouse gases are water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons. Carbon dioxide comes from fossil fuels, deforestation, reforestation, adding fertilizers in the soil and other various factors. Fluorinated gases come from industrial practices such as refrigeration and consumption of specific consumer products. Methane is formed through agricultural activities, waste disposal and use of energy while nitrous is produced when fertilizer is applied.

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According to Malik and Grohmann (2012, pp. 21), solid waste can be disposed of through three main ways; landfill, incineration and composting. In the US the major greenhouse gas emitted is Landfill gas; it is formed through evaporation of solvents, when waste chemically reacts or by production of methane gas. Methanol is produced when decaying waste or material is at its last stage. It can be produced in factories, by human internal organs and waste material and sometimes methane can come from underground outlets. It is used as a source for heat energy. The waste management major reason is the maximization of resources and recycling of matter to reduce waste output hence creating new usable products and reducing production of the same products being recycled. However, when waste is poorly managed it leads to other negative factors in environment, security and safety.

Environmental factors are such as climatic changes due to the significant rise of gases in the atmosphere. Security factors occur when landmine busts causing accidents that sometimes lead to deaths. If methane gas channels or outlets bust they can cause fire because they are highly flammable. Underground channels may also bust and cause collapsing of the structures on ground above hence they make the ground to be highly unstable. In other instances the gas underground pathway may enter into ground water, this contaminates the water with the waste materials carried through by the gas causing health issues.

According to Santoleri, Theodore and Reynolds (2000, pp. 433), waste incineration is whereby all the solid waste is burnt into carbon; this method pollutes the air highly. When burning waste matter, different waste materials provide different gases. For example plastics provide fossils carbon content when burnt; sometimes this method is not economical. This is because many incineration methods or facilities do not recycle or recover heat energy. When improvising ways to reduce global warming through reduction of pollution, methods used must not reduce pollution in one way while polluting in another. For instance land or solid pollution must not be reduced through methods that pollute the air or water.

Conforming to Leonard (2005, pp. 1682), composting can be used as a waste management method only when dealing with biowaste or rather wasted material that can ferment and disintegrate easily and completely. However, this method can produce methane or nitrous oxide gas though in small quantities. Therefore, it is very important to assess closely or monitor this method to prevent mass production of these gases.

The UN IPCC Guidelines are the major steps formulated by the UN Council and provided to act as a formula for easier reduction of greenhouse gas. They are formulated and reviewed over a period of two years and by over 250 Authors. In keeping with Change (2013, pp. 15), the UN guidelines are constantly revised and updated in relation to current conditions. Guidelines monitor various platforms in relation to the pollution they are; the transport, industry, cars, trains, planes and other means of pollution. Transport affects the environment by mass production of carbon monoxide. The second is factories and industries, by-product processing and burning of raw materials and as a byproduct greenhouse gases are massively produced. The burning of fossil fuel products to produce energy for the industries is also a cause. Energy production has spiked the greenhouse gases level; energy can be produced for small scale consumption like in houses for heat and large-scale for firms consumption. Waste water, land use and agriculture are other critical fields that UN guidelines closely monitor.

In accordance with UN deliberations about waste management, pollution holds political, social, and financial importance. Waste management concerns the reductive and reintroduction processes of what is seems as having served purpose, or as no-longer-useful. Activities such as recycling, reusing, composting, combustions, anaerobic digestion, and treatment are key aspects of waste management. These processes involve the reclamation, getting rid of, or conversion of already utilized substances. The process of anaerobic digestion implies biologically inspired reduction of matter. According to Arvanitoyannis (2008, pp.772), this method is commonly used by food production entities. Digesters are among such technologies that simulate natural environments facilitating waste reduction. When calculating waste reduction, this aspect is deemed important as it can be analyzed scientifically to expose the greenhouse gases volumes produced during processes of waste management. Carbon (IV) oxide and methane are among the gases studied in this context. This aspect exposes utility of microorganisms and fostering of the favorable environment. Favorable environments are ones that allow microorganisms to exist in an empowering environment. The calculation explores the benefits of anaerobic digestion as a baseline in comparison to other mechanisms. The approach to biological reduction and waste management of organic matter considers quantitative facts.

According to Rhyner (1995, pp. 250), the aspect of combustion in waste management calculations to exposes Carbon monoxide production and considers utilization of air in the processes of incinerating matter. The processes involved in this waste management practice include, but are not limited to the conversion of matter into carbon oxides. Calculations study this by looking at combustion as a process involving input and output. Mass put into a combustive process is compared to the output observed. The amount of output in terms of gases reveals the potential of combustion as a reductive practice. The calculation also explores the probability that challenges surrounding the whole process should be considered more significant than the attached benefits.

Recycling and reusing appear to present much resemblance. These aspects of waste management reveal reclamation and reintroduction of items or resources derived from such. Recycling reduced disposal activities. Waste is not created as optional uses of matter are realized. Waste management in the form of waste treatment borrows from recycling habits. Instead of getting rid of waste it seeks alternative remedies to pollution problems. Waste treatment concerns the utilization of waste management wisdom to ensure that waste does not affect the environment. It reduces the influential effects of waste. In this context, waste management concerns employment of formulae to expose alternative means of waste control. Waste treatment would be the baseline upon which calculations are developed.

The calculation system makes much use of simulations. Emissions are compared from one activity to the other. A base line and alternative events are determined, and both cases studied simultaneously to reveal significant differences. An optional case is studied to explain what repercussions or rewards occur if certain events take root. Reductive processes are compared and other implications resulting from empowering activities considered. For instance, calculating greenhouse gases emission in the context of anaerobic digestion and relating such to recycling activities would require that calculations consider waste associated with mobilization of both. Waste management activities consider different approaches, calculation of emission rates emphasis on the extreme comparisons of varying circumstances to reveal consequence and benefits. An overall relationship relates primarily to ecological status and potential eventualities upon adoption of specific approaches.

In conclusion, through modern and well-monitored waste disposal methods the greenhouse gases can be regulated easily. The UN and EU have continuously involved their member states in the quest to manage this problem. However, it has not been very fruitful considering that some of the worlds super power countries are the most polluted. The Kyoto protocol had even gone a notch further by personalizing the requirements and stipulated what percentiles to be reduced by various specific countries. This would later be scratched and standardized by the member states. These types of boardroom rebellions are slowing down the process of monitoring this issue. It is paramount for all states to establish a well-tailored greenhouse gas emission reduction target. This will enable countries heavily polluted such as China in curbing the issue with the same rate as other countries in proportion to the level of pollution.

References

Arvanitoyannis, I. (2008). Waste Management for the Food Industries (Food science and technology. International series). Academic Press.Change, G. (2013). Annual statement of emissions for 2011. [S.l.]: Tso.

Leonard, T. (2005). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis Ltd.

Malik, A. and Grohmann, E. (2012). Environmental protection strategies for sustainable development. Dordrecht: Springer.

Rhyner, C. (1995). Waste management and resource recovery. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.

Santoleri, J., Theodore, L. and Reynolds, J. (2000). Introduction to hazardous waste incineration. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

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UN Guidelines on Green House Gas Emission. (2019, Jun 14). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/un-guidelines-on-green-house-gas-emission

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