Paper Example. Type of Virus

Published: 2023-08-06
Paper Example. Type of Virus
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Biology Medicine Covid 19
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1767 words
15 min read

Coronaviruses are a group of highly-interrelated RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases not only in mammals but also birds. These virions exist as spherical and pleomorphic enveloped particles (Tyrrell and Myint 116). The clad structure appears to be studded with a wide range of projecting glycoproteins. The structure also surrounds a core made up of matrix protein enclosed within which there exists a single strand of positive-sense RNA that is directly associated with nucleoprotein. These enveloped glycoproteins play a vital role in ensuring that the virus attaches itself to the host cell alongside carrying the main antigen epitopes, especially those recognized through the neutralization of antibodies (Nicola et al. 11). Scientific researchers classify coronaviruses under the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, order Nidovirales, and the realm Riboviria basing on their halo or crown-like appearance as seen in the case of the glycoprotein-studded envelope on a typical electron microscope (Tyrrell and Myint 116). As a result, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the COVID-19 virus by looking at the organs of the body affected, its symptoms, and its current infection rates. The research also covers the treatment approaches, the status of vaccine development, appropriate prevention mechanisms, and emerging information.

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Organs/Tissues of the Body Affected by the COVID-19 Virus

COVID-19 affects various parts of the body. However, the infection process begins when an uninfected person comes in contact with the cough or sneeze of an infected individual (Dod 53). The cough can successfully spread uninfected people standing or sitting approximately six feet beside the infected individual. The uninfected individuals get infected by inhaling those droplets into their lungs or come in contact with a surface harboring the virus before touching critical body parts, including the mouth, nose, or eyes (Nicola et al. 11). As a result, the disease mainly affects the lungs, but further research indicates that the infection leads to critical complications, including kidney injury, heart problems, and permanent organ failure (Dodd 53). Hence, it is vital to identify early signs and symptoms and implement the necessary counterstrategies.


COVID-19 depicts various signs and symptoms among infected people, with most of them developing mild to moderate illness and recovering without any form of hospitalization (Rana 1). However, the most common symptoms of COVID-19 disease include fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Severe symptoms of COVID-19 disease include difficulties in breathing or shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, and loss of movement or speech (Li et al. 54). It is crucial to seek medical attention upon realizing that one has such severe signs and symptoms.

Current Infection Rate-Hot Spots

It takes approximately 5–6 days from when a person gets infected with the COVID-19 virus for the symptoms to start showing up. However, it may last for 14 days in some individuals. The infection rate of COVID-19 remains difficult to tell because its incidence rates keep on changing across the world. The total number of people infected with COVID-19 as of May 14, 2020, stands at 4,431,893 people, with deaths reaching 298,202 individuals (Worldometer 1). However, appropriate countermeasures have to 1,662,406 recoveries across the world (Worldometer 1). The number of active cases stands at 2,471,285 persons, with 2,425,353 people and 45,932 individuals being in mild and critical conditions, respectively (Worldometer 1). The city of Wuhan remained a crucial hotspot for COVID-19 disease since November 2019. However, this focus changed rapidly when other parts of the world, including the United States, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Iran, the United Kingdom (UK), Switzerland, and Turkey began recording a tremendous increase in the number of infections and deaths (Duddu 1). Hence, the current focus in on these countries alongside China as hot spots. An epidemiologic graph adopted from Worldometer shows that the world is increasingly witnessing a rise in the number of active cases of COVID-19, as illustrated below.

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Scientists across the world are yet to find an appropriate technique for treating COVID-19. However, a plethora of people are increasingly coming up with multiple strategies that can help in the effective treatment of this disease. According to Naito, gargling with salt water, vinegar, alongside other oral solutions, is one of the techniques suggested by people, mostly the Japanese due to its effectiveness in treating a wide range of upper as well as respiratory infections resulting from various bacteria and viruses, including coronavirus (1). However, there is no scientific evidence to prove the effectiveness of gaggling. Medical practitioners use appropriate techniques to treat the symptoms presented by various patients of COVID-19 (Guan 2). For instance, antibiotics help in the treatment of bacteria with patients suffering from shortness of breath, benefiting from oxygen ventilators. Supportive care, combined with broad-spectrum anti-viral drugs alongside the corticosteroids, is also standard practice for treating COVID-19 (Li et al. 54). Hence, there is a need to speed up vaccine development to help in combating this pandemic.

An Overview of the Status of Vaccine Development

Scientists and medical experts across the world turned their focus on developing a vaccine to help in the control of COVID-19 (Sheikh 1). However, their efforts are yet to bear success. Researchers have created approximately 90 projects seeking to develop effective vaccines for preventing COVID-19 (Tingley 1). These scientists are increasingly searching for intermediate treatment options to reduce the number of people infected and those dying from this pandemic. For example, some agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, are considering the need to repurpose some drugs. Currently, only one drug, remdesivir, is scientifically proven in various randomized control trials to reduce the recovery time of patients with COVID-19 (Tingley 1). Hence, more efforts are still critical in getting the ultimate cure by developing a vaccine.


There is a wide range of proven techniques that people worldwide are increasingly using to prevent COVID-19. First, people need to wash their hands regularly with soap or clean them using a sanitizer because the two methods play a vital role in cleaning the virus (Sheikh 1). Secondly, it is critical to maintain a social distance of at least 1 meter from each other and wear an approved mask to protect the uninfected individuals from contracting the virus (Nicola et al. 17). Thirdly, the introduction of strict measures, including curfews and lockdowns in regions and countries with high prevalence, incidence, and mortality cases, is also an integral approach. Lastly, people feeling sick should isolate themselves from others and communicate to the appropriate health authorities upon the detection of COVID-19 signs and symptoms for immediate action (Dodd 53). Failing to implement these strategies can increase the number of infections in an area.

Emerging Information about Who is Affected Now and Symptoms

There is various emerging information about coronavirus. Some of this information indicates that infections continue to increase across the world alongside an increase in mortality rates despite countermeasures undertaken (Li et al. 54). The less common symptoms of the disease include sore throat, diarrhea, and headache. Others include conjunctivitis, loss of smell or taste, skin rashes, and discoloration of toes and fingers (Dodd 53). Further research indicates that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe symptom responsible for causing deaths among people diagnosed with COVID-19. DIC refers to a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body of COVID-19 patients leading to the blockage of small blood vessels. Symptoms of this condition are what many medical scientists report as severe forms of those diagnosed with COVID-19, such as chest pain, leg pain, shortness of breath, problems with speaking, and difficulties in moving various parts of the body (Nicola 11). Most of the patients who died in large numbers in several parts of the world, including Italy, depicted DIC symptoms, as reported in various medical reports filed after conducting autopsies.

People affected by the disease include those who recently traveled or lived in areas with ongoing community spread of COVID-19 as determined by WHO and those with close contact with people having the disease (Tingley 1). People who get sneezed or coughed on by those infected also get infected. Besides, most of the governments in a wide range of countries located in South America implemented stern measures, including the Martial Law, in addition to lockdowns to limit free movement of people exclusively as a strategic measure towards controlling the spread of COVID-19. Also, many people in the world do not believe in the existence of COVID-19 pandemic. They are increasingly supporting the views held by the current United States President, Donald Trump, who is more obliged to implement gun law alongside liberty as opposed to focusing on this pandemic. This patriarchal view remains a critical obstacle preventing people from successfully controlling the spread of COVID-19 in the United States and across the world.

Personal View on How COVID-19 Outbreak Has Affected Life on Earth in General

COVID-19 has had a far-reaching impact on lives across the world (Guan 4). People continue to feel both the economic as well as the social effects of this deadly disease. Economic impacts of COVID-19 include massive unemployment, loss jobs, poor living conditions due to failure to meet the high cost of living, and business closure. Lockdowns resulting from COVID-19 also led to decreasing foreign revenues due to the prevention of people from moving across the world. Social effects of the disease include psychological trauma and stigma associated with being infected and dying as well as the failure to move from one place to another to interact with friends, families, and colleagues (Xie 15). However, there are still hopes of controlling this disease. For instance, health stakeholders can aim at encouraging people to observe preventive measures to spread the epidemiological curve. This approach should entail reducing the number of deaths as well as new infections and speeding up recovery. Focusing on the Bronx Zoo tiger that infests who are a critical infestation strategy alongside cats can help in leveling the curve (Nicola et al. 20). Scientists also need to speed up the research process to test and ascertain the effectiveness of drugs such as Remdesivir and Ivermectina as potential treatment approaches.


The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) provides the best example of health challenges affecting a wide range of people living in contemporary society. The condition has a far-reaching economic and social impact across the world. As a result, a plethora of health stakeholders, including governments worldwide, are increasingly developing appropriate vaccination and treatment techniques to combat the spread of COVID-19, as discussed in this paper.

Works Cited

Dodd, Johnny. A Patient’s Quarantine: I Survived the Coronavirus. People: A Patients’ Quarantine Diary. March 16, 2020. Accessed May 14, 2020.

Duddu, Praveen. COVID-19 coronavirus: Top ten most-affected countries. Pharmaceutical-technology, April 2, 2020,

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