Free Essay. Tichy's TPC (Technical, Political, and Cultural) Model

Published: 2023-04-19
Free Essay. Tichy's TPC (Technical, Political, and Cultural) Model
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Strategic management Organizational culture Leadership management
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1673 words
14 min read

Q1. Apply a Model

The selected model includes Tichy's TPC (Technical, Political, and Cultural) model, which emphasizes organizational change (Tichy, 1983). According to Burke (2018), the TPC approach assumes three fundamental principles, including the political factor, the cultural element as well as the technical system for appreciating organizational change. The political factor is associated with power dynamics where some individuals believe they are more powerful compared to others, and organizational change is represented by negotiation. The cultural element involves shared norms and values that link people within a firm. The technical feature represents hard data ad science, and thus it is based on a highly rational perspective (Burke, 2018). Tichy's research indicates that multiple failures associated with strategic organizational change take place because leaders only emphasize one system for replacement and fail, bearing in mind the incongruence of the remaining two schemes (technical and cultural) (Hughes, 1990). A case example illustrating this phenomenon includes a situation where the president of a college institution announces that he intends to transform the institution to a student-centered college across the region; however, he omits alteration of the curriculum, which can accommodate student-designed majors and continually promotes individuals based on the number of projects they have conducted and published instead of doing initial student evaluation processes. This case study shows that the student leader only focuses on a cultural change (the aspect of becoming a student-centered college) and fails to emphasize both the matching technical difference (omits alteration of the curriculum), as well as the corresponding political change (failure to perform student evaluation). As such, the student leader is highly likely to fail to attain his intended objective.

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Q2. Easier said than done?

Burke-Litwin believed that such environmental factors as employee motivation, personal values, and needs, organizational structure as well as work unit environment are the most crucial drivers for organizational change because they define the vision and mission of an organization (Burke, 2018). However, the biggest challenge associated with the implementation of the Burke-Litman model involves the determination of the vision of a given firm. Burke (2018) argued that though not irrational, an organization's vision is nonetheless emotional and frequently replicates the passion felt by organizational members, particularly the leaders. As such, the determination of a vision statement for a firm poses a great challenge, and the problem may "stretch" (Burke, 2018, p. 257) for a long duration.

Q3. Culture change

The Tichy's TPC model offers an important aspect of cultural change that can potentially benefit the British Airways (BA) in their quest to attain cultural change. Most fundamentally, Tichy's TPC approach emphasizes the value, as well as the believes that can potentially link employees at the BA because they offer them the additional depth of acknowledging culture beyond artifacts, along with educating the workforce to become diligent (Burke, 2018). As such, the BA workforce can only become diligent by discerning the probable differences between the things other organizational members communicate concerning their values, believes, along with how they behave.

Week 8

Q4. Glass Half Empty and Half Full

Burke manifests that an organizational cultural practices cab be sometimes be discouraging. Nevertheless, Burke-Litwin becomes hopeful of the changes made in the regulatory changes based on the cultural practices of various institutions. However, the changes are only short-lived, and this makes Burke feel disillusioned. Burke laments that changing organizations that have a tight system cannot be realized effectively due to the strong cultural tie. On the other hand, Burke feels hopeful when it comes to changing the policies of loosely coupled system institutions, characterized by interdependence among the organizational units.

Q5. Universal definition?

The variation in the definition of leadership is dependent on an individual's experience. Additionally, the difference in the description of leadership is also determined by who a person is conversing with. The universal definition of leadership illustrates on mobilizing or influencing something to happen (Burke, 2018). This influence relies on an individual's capacity to personalize the organization's goals. The lack of a clear universal definition of a leader may create a deceptive self-concept in different individuals. Organizations without an appropriately defined leadership system may lack proper strategic decision making. The visionary and rousing model of leadership stresses charismatic, goal-oriented, and transformational qualities (Burke, 2018). An organization lacking these attributes in its leader-managerial structure could risk being identified as a deficient motivation organization. Nevertheless, an organization without a sufficiently defined leadership system may be characterized by a seven leveled structure with a productive labor code as even the executives get to put in technical efforts as the employees and managers in lower levels (Burke, 2018).

Q6. The right amount of content?

According to Burke (2018), research and culture implementation is vital in changing health care and government organizations. Additionally, Burke concludes that organizational change commences in the 1950s and is still inevitable to date. I, therefore, want to be a student of Burke's school of thought that supports the claim of organizational change. Consequently, I believe Burke avails the right amount of information required based on the subject matter. Therefore, I settle for the statement that states that Burke devoted just the right amount of data to convey his message about nonprofit organizations.

Nevertheless, the Health Organization's history of change is well covered through Burke's interpretation. I, therefore, chose the above statement because it avails a comprehensive analysis of the nonprofit institutions. First and foremost, Burke gives examples of various nonprofit organizations and their efforts towards change. For the Health Care Organizations, Burke posits that change has been difficult because the Health institutions are complicated in comprehending.

Week 9

Q7. Leadership Development Program

The PowerPoint in week nine's presentation suggests that the leadership development program has many segments. The programs may take weeks and years to implement in an organization structure. However, all the development program components must rotate around achieving core business goals of an institution. However, the development program cannot be applied to all members of an institution but rather on the selected individuals who are trained and later assessed through evaluating their feedback. The selected individuals should be exposed to maximum training on development chosen topics. According to Burke (2018), reinforcing leadership development program in an institution promote the practice of new skills as well as availing new means of solving organizational challenges.

Q8. Four Phases

Burke affirms that leadership is crucial in organizational success. However, for effective implementation of a leadership role in an organization, four phases must be considered. The phases range from prelaunch to post-launch steps that involve scrutiny and enforcement of new initiatives to rejuvenate an organization's strengths. Leonard & Goff follow Burke's model of four-phase in addressing the additional leadership role. The duo affirms that leaders must be up to the task and possess inborn leadership traits. Burke's four stages of leadership role relate to those of Goff and Leonard. Additionally, Leonard and Goff suggest some steps to follow when changing leadership style in an organization, all of which share a common perspective with Burke's ideas.

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Q9. Weblink

Kotter's 8-steps models for change revolve around changing the entire outlook of an institution, including culture. Therefore, Kotter's models can be related to Burke's information on organizational change. Both Burke and Kotter suggest that it is prudent to involve changing corporate culture when implementing the objectives of change. Culture determines the entire process of an institutional change, so failure to address it leads to an unrealistic goal for change.

Week 10

Q10. Teamwork

Burke (2018), asserts that cooperation should be essential in building an organization and achieving its set objectives. However, Burke does not avail of what is to be done to improve collaboration in an institution. I, therefore, assume that Burke's assertions are just empty and cannot change the image of an institution with undivided members. If Burke intends to improve teamwork in institutions, it would have been prudent if he covered the benefits of organizational teamwork and steps in strengthening teamwork. Consequently, I would like to remind Burke that it is not what we say that matters but rather what we do and how we articulate that which we wish to be achieved.

Q11. Lisa Bodell

Through Lisa's video presentation, I have discovered that an individual mindset is critical in changing the reputation of an institution. Lisa states that people are so quick in realizing simple mistakes in situations rather than appreciating the good things in it. It is, therefore, a concern to us to be positive in our outlook and expect the best of the outcomes. Consequently, Lisa advises that leaders are ordinary people, yet employee fears telling them facts about their mistakes. Employees should learn to select leaders wisely and correct the adverse actions that many organizational leaders do when in power.

Q12. Most Influential

In my opinion, the most influential towards addressing change in an organization is Lisa Bodell. The lady gives excellent information on how to realize good things in bad ones by acquiring a proper mindset. It is undisputed that no matter how much we strive for change, we cannot achieve our goal with a negative mindset. The mind, therefore, is a crucial element in realizing organizational changes. On the other hand, Lisa suggests that we should be the changes that we want to see in people. For instance, we should be careful in our selection of leaders, lest I forget, correcting them when they go wrong.

Q13. Anything missing?

Burke's teachings are influential though they need to be substantiated accordingly. Burke gives shallow information on some topics that he could otherwise illustrate further. On the other hand, he fails to be precise on other prominent issues, thereby providing more details that divert the attention of his readers. I recommend that Burke should adopt, Lisa's model of presentation that is precise and to the point. Lisa spends a few minutes explaining reasons why the organization resist change, yet her performance remains to be robust and influential.


Burke, W. W. (2018). Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications Inc.

Hughes, J. R. (1990). Applying Change and Organizational Theories in a Library Reorganization. Cause/Effect, 13(4), 16-22.

Tichy, N. M. (1983). Managing strategic change: Technical, political, and cultural dynamics. New York: Wiley.

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