|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Philosophy Philosophers Immanuel Kant|
The theory of Utilitarianism support that indicates the significance of utilitarianism as a moral theory whereby it confronts all the misconceptions that have made against it. Mill discusses utilitarianism based on the principle that indicates that the actions are right in the way. He defines happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain (Mill, 61). To him, pleasure can be made to differ in quantity and also quality. Pleasure that is built on someones high faculty should be taken more seriously than the baser pleasure. Mill suggestion stipulates the achievement made by individual with a righteous life can be considered as a vessel of happiness.
The concept of utilitarianism is made to coincide with the sentiments that originate from the nature of people. Were it that the community believed in utilitarianism like an ethic, then the standards would be used like moral bidings so that to internalize them (Mill, 61). Mill claim that people cannot desire anything apart from happiness and the claim can be supported by making all the individuals know that the objects that people desire are either a way to happiness or can be defined as happiness. Utility according to Mill is a sentiment of justice on which it is based on, and rights only exist because there is the human happiness.
Although the theory of utilitarianism has been supported by Mill, there have been controversies raised about it. Critics have been saying that the theory does not provide enough protection for the individual rights. There has also been something missing in the standard of measuring the theory as not everything can be measured using the same standard (MacKinnon, Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues). The way happiness is explained, it is portrayed in a simple way to and happiness is more complicated than the theory discusses it. The theory has impossibility on it since everything good is not necessarily intersubstitutable.
It is also difficult to apply keeping in mind that one cannot calculate the effects of every individual. Since the theory is a description of what makes something right, there should be an example of something useful but also wrong. The idea of ignoring suffering is equally absurd, and the theory should contemplate the fact that some happiness can be acquired from peoples suffering (MacKinnon, Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues). On the other hand, the theory holds that everyone should try to obtain the greatest happiness for the greater number. The theory supports people extreme attainment of pleasure which would guide their tendencies of actions as well as their morality in life.
The deontological theory is considered to be one of the ethical theories that provide the approach of deriving the moral rules and guidelines, justification and the criteria that can be used to evaluate the moral value of particular human doings (Kant, "Deontology). The theory tries to lay down the approach of how morality came to existence and the various ways that can be used to judge the actions and analyze them regarding their moral legitimacy.
The theory was founded by Immanuel Kant, and it is sometimes referred to as the Kantian theory. It is therefore important to note that Kant formulated the ethical theory at the time that there was a strong belief in the ability of the human to help in understanding the world and solving its mysteries with the inclusion of the ethical one too (Kant, "Deontology). Out of this context, Kant was able to formulate an approach that was based on reason and believed that for one to be ethical, then they needed to be rational. He believed that it is up to obligation that one behaved morally. The theory suggests that there should be no exception or even loophole and as a result, the more emphasis on the rules rather than the outcomes.
Kant suggests that there is an inherent aspect of a particular moral rule that makes a situation to be either good or bad. The theory judges the morality of an action in the sense that it is either consequences or utility. The theory is based on the established rules and guidelines which are considered to be unconditional, universal and obligatory (Kant, "Deontology). The deontological theory claims that the ends of action never justifies the means but rather, the actions are what is either right or wrong. According to Kant, the fundamental rational principle of moral reasoning is the categorical imperative. Kant suggests that the theory cannot be based on what people want, but everyone should act rationally regardless without showing considerations to his or her interests.
The theory emphasizes the value of human being and the extent of giving equal opportunity and respect to all human being. The basis of human right is provided in this theory, and there is regard of interest to a single person even the ones with the benefit of a large group. (MacKinnon, Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues) On the other hand, Kant appears not to recognize the gap that is in the law of rational will where he fails to establish the fact that there is no proof that we are indeed free. He fails to establish the autonomy of will, and as a result, there was no explanation to the moral demands that is over the individuals.
In a nutshell, Deontological ethics is based on the concern of what people do and not with the consequences of their actions. The theory merely judges the wrong doings and states that people should not do them at all due to some obligation and duty to doing the right thing. Utilitarianism supports the basis of pleasure and the fact that everything that human being does is either to bring happiness or a way for happiness. Both moral theories discusses how human being strives to achieve the right values that would allow them to coexist with each other.
Kant, Immanuel. "Deontology - Kantian Duty-Based Ethics - Seven Pillars Institute." Seven Pillars Institute. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Nov. 2016.
Mill, John Stuart. Ulitarianism. London, 2007.
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. , 2014. Print
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