The Urinary SystemIntroduction

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The urinary system is also referred to as the renal system. It consists of the kidneys, bladder, urethra and the ureter in a simple system of organs whose main aim is to ensure the excretion of liquid substances from the body. This system is responsible for, among other function, the processing of urea into urine and its excretion through the external organ of the mammal. This paper is an analysis of the functions of the organs and parts of this system, as well as a look at the infections that affect it.

The purpose of the urinary system is to ensure that the blood pressure of the body is maintained at a steady constant. This is done by the kidneys which regulate the supply of the blood to the body after filtration.in this, blood volumes within the body is also regulated. The pH levels of the blood are also checked through this system, so that the presence of electrolytes in the body is maintained in this system. This eventually has a bearing on the acidity and basicity of blood in the body.

How it works

The human body has two kidneys that form the basic point of the urinary system. The aim of the urinary system has the basic function of ensuring that the process that urea goes through in order to become urine excreted by the body is completed. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs at the abdomen of an individual which come in pairs one on the left-hand side and the other on the right-hand side. These kidneys have core functional units called nephrons. They are responsible for the filtration of blood. They are tube-shaped and are converging in nature so that as blood passes through them, the pressure causes the impurities (urine) in blood to move out into collecting ducts. Eventually, it is collected in the pelvis and flows into the ureter. The ureter is a tube-like structure that flows from the pelvis area to the bladder where urine is stored.

During urination, the bladder is opened and the urine flows through the urethra and out through the excretory organ. However, the process is different between males and females because of the multiple function of the urethra in males. The urethra in males has more sections because of its interaction with other functions such as reproduction. Thus the urethra is longer for males. In females, however, the urethra is shorter beginning at the bladder opening and concluding in the vaginal vestibule.

Functions of the system

The renal system has multiple responsibilities. One of the major functions is to ensure that waste is removed from the body. The waste that is expelled from the body at this point is normally urea and uric acid. Both of these are basic substances that form the composition of urine. This product is produced as a result of the body of the individual interacting with nitrogen-based compounds in the body (Al-Ansari, 2008). Another function is to ensure the proper balance of electrolytes within the body. The body often uses potassium and sodium compounds, which if left unchecked can cause the instability of cells because of their high bonding properties. As a result, the role of the kidneys is to ensure that these ions are checked for the proper functioning of cells (Manthea, et al., 1993).

The system is also responsible for the regulation of the pH value of the blood. The homeostasis which involves balance of the acids and bases in the body is what constitutes the other function of this system. It is important to note that without these pH range for the body, proteins become destroyed and denatured, the enzymes presents in various parts of the body cease to work, and an excessive divergence may mean death to the subject. The role of maintaining this balance is regulated by the renal system in collaboration with the circulatory system. Blood pH in the arteries is expected to be at 7.40 with a deviation of 0.02 (Nancy, 2013). Finally, the system has the responsibility of maintaining blood volume and pressure. The system filters out excess fluid alongside the urea and uric acid to regulate the volume of blood and its pressure. Urine should be yellow in color. Depending on the amount of excess fluid in the blood that is excreted, the color changes to a corresponding degree. People with excess fluid will normally have colorless urine.

Urination

Urination is the excretion of urine from the body through the external organs depending on the sex of the mammal. Voluntary urination is mostly the case when healthy human beings are being examined. With increase in age however, it becomes less voluntary and people of either very tender ages or older people may have difficulties with holding in the urine. It may become involuntary with the passage of time. This is also the case for people with mental injuries or disabilities (Baba, Murabayashi, Tomiyama, & Kabeke, 1990).

Diseases and infections

There are different specialists who treat different kinds of renal infections and diseases. Nephrologists treat complications that arise within the kidneys, while urologists are more concerned with issues of the urinary tract. Urologists are more specialized in the male anatomy and gynecologists will normally treat complications that arise in women.

One kind of an infection that is common are Urinary Tract Infections, also referred to as UTIs. These can affect the whole of the urinary system, or only one part such as the bladder, kidney or urethra. These kinds of infections are caused by bacteria presence in the system, which is a more commonplace occurrence for women as opposed to men. Both sexes are however exposed to these infections. They can be eradicated by simply taking antibiotics (Sanders & McKenna, 2012).

Incontinence is another complication in the urinary system that arises from post-natal infections. This is characterized by leakage which is usually as a result of vaginal delivery, overflow where the bladder doesnt completely empty as well as a hyperactive bladder. Vaginal laser surgery is becoming a viable option for many women who have experienced this. Other treatments include mediation and therapy.

Prostatitis is another complication that arises in the male prostate which swells. It is something that happens when the man has aged and is characterized by painful urination, pain in the pelvis and an urgent (and sometimes uncontrollable) urge to urinate. Kidney stones are also another complication that can arise where excess calcium lodges on the urinary tract. This happens when the concentration of the excretory products is so high that it causes the wastes to form solid masses. Shock treatments are normally used to disintegrate the particles and this is done with ease.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Al-Ansari, F. (2008). Carbon dioxide recovery at GPIC. Nitrogen & Syngas, 36-38.

Baba, T., Murabayashi, S., Tomiyama, T., & Kabeke, K. (1990). Vassopressin increaseswater permeability of kidney collecting duct by inducing translocation of aquoporin-CD water channells to plasma membrane. The Tohuku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 310-18.

Manthea, A., Hopkins, J., McLaughlin, C., Johnson, S., Warner, M., LaHart, D., & Wright, J. (1993). Human Biology and Health. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Nancy, C. (2013). Nancy Caroline's emergency care in the streets (7th Ed.). New York: Buffer Systems: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Sanders, M., & McKenna, K. (2012). Mosby's Paramedic Textbook. New Jersey: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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