The geological perspective of the global environment entails the interdependence of ecosystems on the units of the lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere (Podolskiy, 2009, p. 1). Pape concurs that global environment consists of the holistic outlook of nature's interaction of subsystems on the earth's surface, sea, and the universe. On this notion, healthy existence of nature depends on the diversification of the coexistence of living organisms. This paper will discuss the idea of the global environment from a geological perspective, and the changes are evolving in the four diversities of the earth's sphere regarding environmental changes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Shi Wenxin et al. (2010), state that the earth physically divides into four spheres, which include biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. These spheres mutually interdepend on each other of equal significance for the survival and existence of all living organism. Podolskiy coincides with the argument biodiversity of holistic co-existence of the universe attributes to the interaction of nature's provision of suitable conditions for the cooperation and interdependence of living things in harmony to climatic and environmental changes. He further states that homogeneous dependence of organisms provides holistic integration of the complex systems of nature. Therefore, no global ecological sphere can exist in solitude with the others while none overrides the usefulness of the other. Fig 1 shows the interdependence of global environmental areas of life.
Fig 1: Interdependence of environmental spheres
Environmental changes have subsequently caused changes in the different areas of the global environment over a long duration of human interaction with the universe and climatic changes. According to Podolskiy (2009, p.6), the primary elements inducing the changes occurring in the universal setting entails the coexistence of human beings with the environment and climatic changes. Global warming is the fundamental impact of global environmental changes due to atmospheric and lithospheric pollution instigated by radiation and pollutants. Global warming causes planetary disturbances of biodiversity of ecosystems leading to changes in atmospheric pressure, redistribution of water masses, increased pressure on the gravitational pull and geological trigger. Shi Wenxin et al. (2010) argue that crustal and water load stress caused by global environmental changes accumulates glaciations readjustments that accelerate phenomena like volcanism and earthquakes.
Fig. 2 Pictorial representation of an earthquake
Volcanism entails the rupture of the earth's crust creating the production and flow of hot lava, volcanic ashes and gases from the core of the earth's surface due to high atmospheric pressure on the geological environment of the planet. On the other hand, earthquakes or violent earth movements are resultant from the trembling, vibration, perceived shake, and rolling of the ground surface triggered by the sudden release of strong energies below the surface of the earth.
Fig 3. Pictorial representation of Volcanic eruption
Impacts of global environmental changes
The effects of global environmental change and ecosystem impairment expose human life and other codependents of the earth to the harmful effects. The non-uniform and great catastrophic experiences on the earth surface due to volcanic and earthquakes caused by environmental changes on the lithosphere expose the ecosystem to hazardous events. The ecological impact of shocks happens when sudden changes of temperature occur below the surface of the earth. Sudden tremble, movements or vibration is impacted on the earth's surface causing distress to the peaceful coexistence of the natural harmony. The environmental impact of earthquakes on the earth surface happens on the floor of seas or at the coastline in the form of tsunamis. The speed and strength of earthquakes measured in kilometers per hour where tsunamis measure 1000km/hr that erupts into violent sea waves of about sixty-five meters high. After tsunamis the landscape terrain and biodiversity of the sea floor and the coastal area changes as well as the coexistence of the whole sea life. Another environmental impact of earthquakes includes soil liquefaction and landslides. Landslides/mudslides happen during earthquakes due to trembles or shake leading to downhill loose of the topsoil and everything on it like trees, houses, and even human beings. On the other hand, liquefaction agitated by earthquakes causes soils containing high levels of water content to flow through the gradient. Environmental impact of volcanic eruptions ranges from acidic rain, exposure of human and plants to poisonous atmospheric gases like sulfur and nitrous oxides, as well as climatic changes. Emission of gases from the earth into the atmosphere causes acidic biodiversity damages buildings and plant stains from volcanic eruption ashes and dust. Also, high voltage liquid magma burns the environment's diversity as it flows from the volcanic tops downstream.
The global environment forms the platform for live existence on earth between living organisms. The inertial composition of the ecosystem of the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere actively provides reasoning for the changes that occur in our biodiversity. The interruptions in global harmony in the coexistence of the ecosystem cause the earth's environment to deform as a reaction to little intrusion produced by natural or anthropogenic forces causes seismic catastrophes which include earthquakes and volcanism eruptions.to deform as a reaction to minute interruption produced by natural or anthropogenic forces causes seismic catastrophes which include earthquakes and volcanism eruptions.
Pape, Jessica. "Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability." Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, vol. 6, no. 2, 2010.
Podolskiy, Evgeny A. "Effects of Recent Environmental Changes on Global Seismicity and Volcanism." Earth Interactions, vol. 13, no. 4, 2009, pp. 1-14.
Shi, Wenxin, et al. "Climate Change and Global Warming." Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 2, 2010, pp. 99-102., doi:10.1007/s11157-010-9206-7.
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