Smoking is defined as the act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plant materials. Several types of plant materials are smoking, which include hashish and marijuana. The act of Smoking is commonly involved with tobacco as smoked in a cigar, pipe, or cigarette. The following signs can identify a smoker. A smoker will have stained nails and fingers, which may be yellow because of repeated exposure to smoke and tar in the smoke. The smoker may also be recognized by observing burns on the lips, and a smell of smoke may be recognized from the breath. Over recent years, Smoking has caused over 83% of deaths from chronic diseases and 84% of deaths associated with lung cancer. Smoking has been linked to causing several consequences to the health of the people. Smoking can be grouped as first-hand Smoking and second-hand Smoking. The first-hand smoker is one who directly smokes while the second-hand smokers are the people who do not want smokers, but they are involved in inhaling smoke from the environment. This paper aims to discuss the consequences of Smoking in detail. Some of the consequences to be discussed include the effect on the brain, effects on reproduction and fertility, effects on the cardiovascular system, and the consequences on pregnancy.
The brain is the controller of one’s memory, speech, thoughts, and the movements of body parts. When the brain is damaged, the person is unable to live normally. Smoking has been associated with one of the causes of brain damage. In the US, tobacco smoking is one of the top cause of deaths which can be prevented. As stated in the report from centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about half a million Americans die prematurely each year as a result of first hand or second-hand Smoking. Most of the people have not been able to understand the effect that smoke causes towards the brain (Ketcham & Hall, 2016). Smoking of nicotine products leads to mimicking of several neurotransmitters in the brain. Nicotine activates dopamine signals hence the creation of enjoyable sensation. The brain, therefore, starts associating the use of nicotine with good feeling hence resulting in side effects like irritability, nicotine craving, and anxiety. Smoking leads to the decline of cognitive as one gets one older, making the individual more forgetful and unable to think properly (Ketcham & Hall, 2016). The decline of cognition is associated with men, according to research carried out in 2012, which showed that men are more prone to a decrease in cognitive compared to women. Smoking also leads to loss of brain volume, where it causes negative effects on the operational integrity of subcortical brain parts.
Besides, Smoking has also led to fertility and reproduction problems for smokers. Women who are associated with Smoking have higher chances of decreased chances of becoming pregnant. Women who smoked during the pregnancy period are related to premature births, low birth weights, and infant demises (Cope, 2015). The low birth weights are one of the most causes of deaths of unborn kids. Smoking generally distresses reproduction by affecting infertility, ectopic pregnancy, birth weight, and unprompted Abortion. Some of the other consequences of Smoking on sexual organs include early reaching of menopause, high chances of cervix cancer and menstrual irregularities, or complete absence of menstruation. On the side of men, Smoking is associated with affecting sperm quality. Increased Smoking has caused the reduction and functioning of the sperm. It affects the hormonal levels in the male reproductive system hence impairing spermatogenesis. Smoking may also lead to genetic damage to the sperms and cause of impotence. The impotence is caused by the damage to the flow of blood in the blood vessels of the penis.
In addition, smoking has consequences on the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system is the organ system that allows the circulation of blood, nutrients, oxygen, and nutrients. Smoking damages the cardiovascular system by tightening blood vessels hence restricting the flow of blood. The continuous damage of the blood vessels leads to peripheral artery disease. Smoking also leads to the weakening of the walls of blood vessels hence may increase blood clotting that may cause a stroke (Pietrangelo, 2017). Smoking not only affects the cardiovascular system but also carries risks to secondhand smokers who do not smoke.
The other consequence of Smoking is the effect on pregnancy, which has been linked to causing ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous Abortion and other complications such as , premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption, and placenta previa (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). Cigarette smoking has been linked with inflammatory diseases, which is a strong factor for ectopic pregnancy. Most of the reported cases of ectopic pregnancies result from smokers hence considered to be the cause. Smoking also causes involuntary termination of the fetus before twenty weeks of gestation. From the reported cases of spontaneous Abortion, more cases of smokers have turned positive with a forty-two percent compared to the non-smokers who records nineteen percent. The women who smoke have also been found to have a shortened gestation period from the normal 37 weeks (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004).
In conclusion, Smoking has been linked to having several consequences to the health of an individual, as discussed above. These consequences can be short term and even long term to the health of an individual. Apart from the discussed consequences, the other effects of Smoking could be increased eye cataracts, loss of hearing, and shortness of breathing. To stop the discussed effect, quitting Smoking is the best option for prevention. One could quit Smoking by seeking help from doctors, getting counseling support, changing lifestyles, and taking nicotine replacement therapies.
Cope, G. (2015). How Smoking during pregnancy affects the mother and fetus. Nurse Prescribing, 13(6), 282–286. https://doi.org/10.12968/npre.2015.13.6.282
Ketcham, C. J., & Hall, E. E. (2016). Caring for Your Brain: What You Need to Know about Concussions. Frontiers for Young Minds, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/frym.2016.00017
Pietrangelo, Ann. “The Effects of Smoking on the Body.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 30 May 2017, www.healthline.com/health/smoking/effects-on-body#4.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General (Vol. 62). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. https://mahb.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/gbook34.pdf
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