Skin Cancer Research

Published: 2019-10-01 09:08:38
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Among the most benevolent causes of cancer of the skin is exposure to ultraviolet radiations. The depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere of the earth has led to increased UV radiations today than it was several years ago (Fisher et al., 2015). The Ozone layer serves as a filter which screens out and reduces the amount of UV light that reach the surface of the earth (Nahar et al., 2015).

UV light and sunburn can destroy the skin thus leading to skin cancer (Garrett et al., 2016). Repeated exposure to substances like arsenic and coal tar, UV radiations such as tanning beds, and artificial forms of rays are other causes of skin cancer as put forward by the American Cancer Society (Hoorens et al., 2016). Additionally, if one comes from the family lineage with cancer histories, then the person is at a higher risk of contracting it. Persons who have had only single severe sunburn have amplified their chance of having skin cancer up to about 50% (Doran et al., 2016).

Basal, malignant and squamous carcinomas are among the different types of skin cancer today (Garrett et al., 2016). Basal foists itself on the parts of the skin which have been wide-open to the sun. Usually, it looks like a small elevated bump with a shiny smooth surface. The other type resembles the scar which is stable to touch. Even though this type of skin cancer spreads to adjacent tissues of the surrounding cancer part, it does not extend to other body zones.

Cancer has a massive impact on the process of homeostasis (Hoorens et al., 2016). Epithelial cells release cytokines that are capable of modulating the immune system functions. The immune system releases cytokines that play an important function in the regulation of the development of epithelial cells (Hoorens et al., 2016). Cancer causes the growth of a tumor which causes excessive inflammation on the skin. With this, there is the failure of the immune system to regulate epithelial growth, and therefore, the immune system gives rise to the neoplasm. The failure of the immune system to function correctly causes problems with homeostasis (Nahar et al., 2015).

The most type of serious skin cancer is malignant melanoma. It spreads faster to other body zones through the blood or lymphatic system (Hoorens et al., 2016). It is more prevalent among adults than other types of cancer. Researchers have shown that men mostly develop melanoma at the stem of the body while, females develop it at the legs and arms. The symptoms of melanoma comprise of fluctuations in size, color or form of the mole, discharge or blood loss from the mole (Garrett et al., 2016).

The most common treatment for both Squamous and basal cell carcinomas is surgery. Cancer cells are scooped out of the body with a sharp object, and an electrical current is then used to scald the ends around the area infected to exterminate any residual cells of cancer a procedure known as electrosurgery. The diseased tissue is killed with liquid nitrogen through cryosurgery (Nahar et al., 2015). The cancer cells are cut off the membrane with a healthy tissue through a simple excision. Micrographic surgery eliminates cancer and as minute as normal skin as probable. During the surgery, doctors remove cancer and the makes the use of the microscope to make sure that there are no remaining cancer cells. The cure rate for this process is five years. A permanent scar may be left on the part of the skin after surgery. Skin grafting may be necessary depending on the amount of cancer removed.

Persons who have treatment of basal cancer need to be examined clinically after every six months for about five years (Garrett et al., 2016). An examination after that for the remains of new tumors and recurrent growths should be done annually. Research shows that within five years, about 36 % of persons with basal cell carcinoma develop secondary basal cell carcinoma (Glanz et al., 2015). Patients with squamous have certain metastatic potential and therefore they should follow a three-month examination procedure for first numerous years after which a six-month plan of re-examination for an unspecified period (Gordon et al., 2016).

In the present world, lifestyle choices have led to an upsurge of many diseases of which one of them is cancer. To eliminate cancer, people need to change their lifestyle habit (Garrett et al., 2016). People need to wear protective gear to prevent them from the direct sun rays capable of causing cancer. The uses of sprays need to be also eliminated. Sprays contain some chemicals responsible for causing cancer. The societys belief need to be also changed to win this fight. The early discovery of the cancer disease is imperative as it is the most crucial tool of surviving the terrible disease (Glanz et al., 2015). At late stages, it is very hard to treat and may end up causing death.

References

Doran, C. M., Ling, R., Byrnes, J., Crane, M., Shakeshaft, A. P., Searles, A., & Perez, D. (2016). Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia. Plos ONE, 11(1), 1-10.

Fisher, V., Lee, D., McGrath, J., & Krejci-Manwaring, J. (2015). Veterans Speak Up: Current Warnings on Skin Cancer Miss the Target, Suggestions for Improvement. Military Medicine, 180(8), 892-897.

Garrett, G. L., Lowenstein, S. E., Singer, J. P., He, S. Y., & Arron, S. T. (2016). Original article: Trends of skin cancer mortality after transplantation in the United States: 1987 to 2013. Journal Of The American Academy Of Dermatology.

Glanz, K., Escoffery, C., Elliott, T., & Nehl, E. J. (2015). Randomized Trial of Two Dissemination Strategies for a Skin Cancer Prevention Program in Aquatic Settings. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1415-1423.

Gordon, L. G., Elliott, T. M., Wright, C. Y., Deghaye, N., & Visser, W. (2016). Modelling the healthcare costs of skin cancer in South Africa. BMC Health Services Research, 161-9.Hoorens, I., Vossaert, K., Pil, L., Boone, B., De Schepper, S., Ongenae, K., & ... Brochez, L. (2016). Total-Body Examination vs Lesion-Directed Skin Cancer Screening. JAMA Dermatology, 152(1), 27-34.

Nahar, V. K., Ford, M. A., Jacks, S. K., Thielen, S. P., Johnson, A. K., Brodell, R. T., & Bass, M. A. (2015). Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer. Indian Journal Of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology, 81(6), 568-575.

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