|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Problem solving Automotive industry Human Stress|
Situational awareness can be defined as an in-depth understanding of the current issues happening in a particular field of interest. It involves recognition of the situation in ways goals, objectives, and actions can be impacted. Situational awareness is a vital stage in the decision-making of any organization. Hence to maintain and achieve situational awareness, individuals, as well as firms, should consider mental patterns, long-term memory, and cognitive abilities. In other words, situational awareness put into consideration the environmental elements as well as the occasion based on time and space to project the future status. A driver's knowledge of situational awareness about speeding while driving is critical to the lives of passengers and pedestrians. The lack of these aspects has led to many road accidents that cause loss of properties and lives. The study will examine the three essential levels of situational awareness, factors that influence situational awareness, and how SA can be maintained and explicitly improved during speeding.
Levels of Situational Awareness
Situational awareness in the transport industry consists of three levels, which include perception of the information, comprehension, and projection of the future. The perception level is focused on the information needed by the driver while on the road, or when planning to drive. Such information required includes the speed to use while on the way. The speed can be determined by the nature of the job. For example, a regular passenger vehicle and an ambulance with a critically ill patient cannot use the same speed on the road. Besides, a driver needs to know what speed limit is the target depending on the traffic rules. Also, the amount of fuel the vehicle need is essential information that every driver should consider in avoiding inconveniences such as lateness or being stuck in areas with no petrol station. The weather of the day is another consideration to pay attention (Durso, Katherin, and Sara, pp.78). Not only are the drivers affected by adverse weather, but also pilots and captains. For example, a misty or windy day will affect the speed of the airplane and ships, respectively. The nature of the traffic, which could be slow or fast, will influence the rate at which the driver, pilot, or captain will use. Other critical information essential to the transport department include the nature of the road and the distance to cover, among other data.
Consequently, the second level of situational awareness is the comprehension of the events. That is, understanding the deeper meaning of the situation at hand. For example, it is essential for a driver to understand the distance between the front and rear vehicles concerning his car. That understanding will help him determine the rate at which he will follow the vehicle or overtake it. Also, crucial to comprehend the next turn on the route to avoid making a sudden turn in the busy roads, thus, leading to an accident. The comprehension of the next spin also enables the driver to turn on the indication lights on time. Besides, the difference between the speed limit and the current speed allows a driver to either accelerate or decelerate the car to comply with the deadlines and regulations of the roads. Lastly, the impact of the current momentum on other people around them is essential to understand (Durso, Katherin, and Sara, pp. 78). For example, high speed could result in accidents or risk danger of other drivers, or a plodding speed could lead to the creation of traffic jams along the roads. Thus, it is vital to understand the effect of the speed to other citizens.
Subsequently, the third project involves the projection of the events likely to happen in the future. In transport, a driver should be able to project the time he/she will reach the designated destination through the consideration of the current route. He/she should be able to forecast the time to reach the target if he uses other alternative ways. Regarding the weather conditions, the driver should be in a position to detect the possible impact the weather may bring.
Factors That Affect Situational Awareness of Speeding
Nevertheless, several factors influence the perception, comprehension, and projection of speeding in the transport industry. These factors include system design, physiological factors, stress and workload, and experience. System design plays a significant role in determining how the information will be acquired (Endsley, pp. 165)a. For instance, a system that is user-friendly will facilitate the rate at which perception of the information will acquire, a straightforward understanding of the events, and accurate prediction of the future. On the other hand, the system that is characterized by ambiguity, complicated, and unfriendly, makes it hard for the perception, comprehension, and prediction of the events. Therefore, for sufficient situational awareness, the system design should be user-friendly, secure, clear, and precise.
Nonetheless, the physical factors determine the effectiveness of speeding. Healthiness is crucial since the aspects of perception, comprehension, and projection rely on the mental processes of the human being, especially the drivers. Factors such as diseases and medication alter the well-being of the functionality of the human body. For instance, a driver that is diagnosed with a mental breakdown of memory is more likely to forget the information acquire earlier, have difficulty in comprehending the nature of events, and thus, make uninformed predictions as compared to a healthy driver. Besides, some medication tends to alter human behaviors, and in some instances, the driver may accelerate the vehicle beyond the speed limit. Therefore, to ensure sufficient situational awareness, the transport department should work together with the health department to keep the well-being of the drivers, pilots, and captains in check.
In addition, stress and workload alter the effectiveness of speeding. Stress is a state whereby the mind is disturbed, and long-term disturbance could lead to depression. Stress changes the rate at which our mind process information and, at the same, an individual's judgment and the rate at which extended memory store information. A significant number of drivers have caused road accidents due to inappropriate speeding. When probed further, the drivers are said to be mentally disturbed. Stress can be caused due to interpersonal conflict, work conflict, or marital conflicts. Also, the workload that the pilots, drivers, and captains are subjected to plays a significant role in situational awareness. When drivers travel for long hours without rest, the abilities of comprehension and prediction are minimal. Some tend to use drugs to enhance their brain and remain awake for long hours. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that drivers, pilots, and captains are taken through stress management programs as well as offer enough time for rest.
Also, experience/training influences the effectiveness of situational awareness. A pilot who has many years of experience tends to have more knowledge of the different situations and what actions need to be taken. For instance, at times of emergency, such a pilot knows what information to look for, what various signals mean, and what is likely to happen. On the other hand, a pilot with less experience may be in the position of knowledge applied only during regular flights, and therefore at times of emergency, he/she may freak out. Not only does the years of experience matter but also the recency of the training. Technology is a significant part of transport and as it is advancing, the practices, information, and measures advance. A captain with recent training tends to have automatic responses and is likely to know what is to happen and what measures to take compared to the one who does not have it. Therefore, the transportation department should keep on upgrading the knowledge of its stakeholders to renew their experience.
Maintaining the level of Situational Awareness in Speeding
Drivers, pilots, and captains are advised to do several practices to ensure that they maintain the level of activeness in situational awareness, especially in speeding. First, road, air, and water users are urged to familiarize themselves with the systems in use. To familiarize yourself with the policies involves finding out all the information required before the journey begins. If the data proves complex, more time is necessary for the familiarization, and if comfortable, less time is needed. Secondly, the participants should be actively involved in the collection of data. There are many resources such as primary or secondary in which information about transport can be obtained. The data gotten should be followed to prove their credibility, such as the environmental survey. For instance, in a case of pilots, 20 % of their time in a journey should be spent looking inside while the remaining time should be spent surveying the outside to take note of the geographical and climatic changes (Endsley, pp. 17)b. Also, to maintain a high level of situational awareness in speeding, drivers should keep their experience and knowledge current. That is, they should make more contact with advanced techniques to ensure that their perception, comprehension, and projections are viable.
Strategies to Improve Situational Awareness of Speeding
Curbing the uncertainties that may result in the failure of situational awareness on speeding among the drivers or pilots, it is crucial to plan ahead of time and assign shift roles in cases where lot of workload and stresses are involved. The driver and co-drivers help each other to rest as well as keep situational awareness active along the roads or in air. Moreover, drivers and pilots should keep their attention systematic and avoid being consumed by the problems (Schneider, pp. 130). For instance, in a situation whereby an accident may be caused by high speeding, the driver should be calm and pay attention to other road users as well as the people in and around the accident scene. This will help minimize the resultant effect of the failure. Also, to improve situational awareness, it is wise to analyze and examines the current performance in regard to the pre-planned transport program. Some of the things to consider include the amount of fuel, distance, and speed, among others.
In summary, situational awareness is the understanding of the events occurring and the events that are likely to happen in the future. The primary levels of this aspect consist of perception, comprehension, and projection. The factors that influence situational awareness on speeding include the system design, physiological factors, stress, and workload as well as experiences. To maintain activeness in situation awareness while flying or driving, one must familiarize with the system, acquire as much information as possible, have an excellent survey of the environment, and maintain updated knowledge. However, to improve on situational awareness on speeding, several strategies should be practiced, such as pre-planning, concentration, and lastly, the evaluation of the current knowledge.
Durso, Francis T., Katherine A. Rawson, and Sara Girotto. "Comprehension and situation awareness." Situational Awareness. Routledge, 2017. 77-108.
Endsley, Mica R. "Automation and situation awareness." Automation and human performance. Routledge, 2018. 163-181.a
Endsley, Mica R. "Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems." Situational awareness. Routledge, 2017. 9-42. b
Schneider, Robert J. "Theory of routine mode choice decisions: An operational framework to increase sustainable transportation." Transport Policy 25 (2013): 128-137.
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