The topic of whether the United States should weaponize space has been a debate for over a century. Space has been equipped with satellites which have facilitated the development of technologies and military innovations. Space control is a priority to ensure the United States remain to be the leader in space technology. Satellites facilitate communications, detect missile launches and monitor enemy activities. Information is generated and channeled accordingly helping sailors, earthbound soldiers and pilots improve their performance. From the satellites space is a medium that is used to control global stability and advanced technology useful in the twenty-first century. Despite using been the worlds frontrunner in space having 110 military satellites compared to 40 for Russia and 20 for the rest of the world, it lacks the ability to defend its assets against rudimentary ASAT technology (Miller pg. 517). Space warfare has far-reaching adverse effects on global commerce for example commercial transactions and telecommunication services that use satellites. John J. Miller with the title Our Next Manifest Destiny uses the use his article in presenting the conservative argument for military control of space. On the other hand, Michael Krepon using the title Weapons in the Heavens: A Radical and Reckless Option indicate how weaponizing space is going to cause the effect in the world since there will be competition for powerful assets. Consequently, Miller is more persuasive because his logos is stronger than Krepons even though Krepon also successfully uses pathos and has equally strong ethos as Miller.
Success in military field has greatly been accomplished by uses of space. Yet the United States will also need tools of force application weapons that act against adversaries directly in and from space, for both offensive and defensive purposes. What our country requires, in short, is the weaponization of outer space. With high risk in space assets, United States need to safeguard others from interference and therefore the need for necessary application in space assets. This quote gives a clear indication of the great challenge in space control. Space has contributed in generating and channeling information which has been necessary for sailors, pilots and earthbound soldiers. Moreover, space enables transmission of instant news and cell phone signals. This is a clear indication of credible source. The reader understands the importance for the United States to apply the necessary application in controlling space assets since they play big role in military systems and national security. In 1990, Democrats in Congress forbade ASAT laser testing (the Republican majority let the ban lapse in 1995). As a result of budgets of other programs which includes ASAT technology, Miller shows how it is necessary to restrict testing which would increase extra expenses. The actions from Clinton administration to lower the budget for ground-based ABMs to 80 percent is and illustration of the financial shortage for ASAT laser testing. The author idea remains as a strategy to control space in the favour of the military. According to Miller, necessary precautions are importance to ensure other powerful nations do not involve themselves in creating competing application tools which would outdo the United States. The reader would think United States strategy in banning ASAT laser testing is a clear indication of financial restraints (Miller pg. 519).
Miller develops ethos when he applies this quote. He is president emeritus of the Henry L. Stimson Center The quote mentions the supremacy level showing the existence of dominance in excising space control. Weaponization of space by the United States is a starting point for conflict with other nations and mostly in national security matters. It will be a complete bad thing when weaponization is agreed to by the United States stakeholders. Moreover, Americans armed forces, diplomacy and economy is expected to face greater burdens while controls over proliferation will be weakened further. Also United States will loss more as compared to other nations since it heavily relies and also a beneficiary of satellites used for military and commercial purposes. From the reader, power should be a concern factor in weaponing space since United States remain as a powerful country will all necessary tools. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty calls on the exploration and use of outer space to be conducted for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and mandates that space may not be subject to national appropriation by any means. For the great available innovations especially in military field it is important to regulate space assets without necessary weaponing the space since the produced innovations would be greatly affected.
There is need to weaponized space as a way of controlling space-age terrorism. The private sector also requires a secure space environment. When the Galaxy IV satellite failed in 1998, paging services shut down, affecting an estimated 44 million customers. Banks and credit-card companies also were affected, along with a few television and radio stations. Satellites contribute high percentage in controlling innovation and technology advancement. As from the quote, failure to weapon the space would pose greater threat to private sectors and national security and this can destroy many developments arising from space assets. In 1999, secretary of defense William Cohen called space power as important to the nation as land, sea, and air power. Space through satellites control all activities done in telecommunication and all that involve technology. Satellites ensure things on earth, sea and air for example signal communication on airplanes and network communication are progressing accordingly reducing any treat associated in communication failure. As a result of this there is need for space control through weaponing.
Of all the risky transformation initiatives championed by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, the one receiving the least media attention is the weaponization of space. Shortly before arriving for his second tour at the Pentagon, Rumsfeld chaired a commission calling for the U.S. government to vigorously pursue the option to deploy weapons in space to deter threats and, if necessary, defend against attacks on U.S. interests. This develops a contradicting aspect on the reason why space should be weaponized to protect United States
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