The tourism sector has been the major economic boost for most tourists destinations. Additionally, the sector has been critical for the tourists visiting the major attraction sites. However, whether the residents feel the same way is a matter that has been the subject of research. Notably, tourism is seasonal as there are some of the times where ore people will visit certain areas and other times where the number of tourists is minimal. As such, the impact that tourism has the residents has to be looked form a seasonal perspective. Either way, the attitudes that the local residents of those tourist destinations have on the tourists and tourism sector in general is critical as they determine whether the tourists will come back or not. Good attitudes lead to even more attraction of the tourists while bad attitudes results to putting off the tourists. The attitudes that different residents have on tourism and seasonality has been the subject of many scholars. This paper synthesizes the various literary works that have been done on this subject matter. Specifically, major scholarly articles will be reviewed based on the theoretical perspectives that their researches are based. Additionally, the data collection methods as well as sampling techniques used will be reviewed and synthesized. Indeed, the areas of controversy between the various researches done on this subject will be articulated.
Theoretical Perspectives and Framework
In their quest to establish the various attitudes that residents have towards tourism and hospitality, different scholars have deployed different theoretical frameworks. Bimonte and Faralla (2016) based their research on the theory that a happy host is critical in the development of tourism. As such, the monitoring of the attitudes of the residents towards the visitation of the tourists in different seasons is critical for policy makers in understanding how tourism affects the satisfaction of the residents. Weaver and Lawton (2013), on the other hand, pegs the research on the theory that the residents have an influential reciprocal relationship with the local tourism activity. However, Garcia, Vazquez and Macias (2015) base their study on the concept that the tourism development does not just have a positive but also an adverse effect on the local level. A similar theory is advanced by GarauVadell et al. (2014) who opine that any possible opposition by the residents to tourism is of great concern not only to the local communities but also to the government. Vargas-Sanchez et al. (2013) pegs their study on the social exchange theory where every individual involved in the tourism activities should benefit. From the theoretical perspectives of all these scholars, it is evident that research on residents attitudes towards tourism is critical. However, the theories used do not explain why the study of the residents attitude is critical to the tourists.
Data Collection Methods
The researches done on this area has seen the use of different data collection methods. This depends on whether the study is qualitative or quantitative. In this regard, Vargas-Sanchez et al. (2013) used a sampling method in data collection. Specifically, observations were used in two rounds. However, GarauVadell et al. (2014) deployed a self-administered questionnaire in the quest to answer the study questions. An online questionnaire was the data collection method that was used by Weaver and Lawton (2013). Garcia, Vazquez and Macias (2015) applied a literature review with various scholarly articles on the subject matter being evaluated. In contrast, Bimonte and Faralla (2016) conducted a survey in the Follonica town, which is a Mediterranean town in the northwest of the province of Grosseto. Weaver and Lawton (2013) deployed the same data collection method of the use of survey where 880 adults on Australias Gold Coast were gauged. Wang, Bickle and Harrill (2010) still deployed a survey method of data collection. The use of this data collection method was necessary, as the studies were quantitative in nature. However, some of the authors did not clearly articulate the nature of the survey.
Samples and Sampling
The size of the samples should be representative enough of the study population. Additionally, the sampling technique used in depended on the study population and the availability of the study participants. In the research by Weaver and Lawton (2013), samples of the residents were taken from the conditional supporters and conditional opponents of the subject matter. Specifically, 880 respondents were used from the study population. However, Bimonte and Faralla (2016) deployed a systematic sample procedure where 329 individuals were surveyed out of the study population of more than 16,000 individuals. Wang, Bickle and Harrill (2010) used a study sample of less than 500 respondents. The use of the particular numbers of the participants was to ensure that the samples adequately represent the study population and that the data that is analysed from the samples is valid and reliable. However, the studies do not articulate the reasons as to why they chose the size of the study samples that they used. Additionally, some do not state the sampling technique used.
Types of Questions/Statements Being Used
Most of the questions that were used in the studies were closed ended. In this regard, yes/no responses were required from the questions. Others used a Linkert scale whereby the respondents were required to choose from the list of responses that were offered. The use of such kind of questions ensured that there was no room for the respondents to get out of the topic. However, these types of questions are also disadvantageous. Specifically, it is impossible for the respondents to add any information that they deem critical for the study. Just as the name suggests, close-ended questions do not offer the respondents any room for them to make any comments. On those researchers using surveys, the statements that were given were also in Linkert scale whereby the respondents were asked to range the statements depending on the level of the veracity or otherwise. The use of such scale ensured that the respondents were able to gauge the level of the statement in the scale. However, it was also disadvantageous considering that there was not room to give another response apart from those in the list.
How Residents Attitude Affects Tourists or Visitors Choices or Their Experiences
From the review of the articles mentioned above, it is clear that the attitudes of the tourists are critical in the development of tourism in various areas across the world. Specifically, a negative attitude is a psychological factor that drives away tourists. This is especially the case where the revenue obtained from the tourism sector do not trickle down to the local communities. Additionally, where the locals are not involved in the planning and welcoming of the tourists, they are likely to have negative attitudes towards tourism and seasonality. However, in areas where they are deemed an integral part of the tourism sector, they have positively received the tourists. Studies have also established that positive attitudes have led tourists to choose to visit places where they were positively received. Additionally, they have chosen against visiting places where they have had a negative and cold reception.
Areas of Controversy and Directions for Further Research
There has been an agreement between various authors that the attitudes of the residents are critical to the development of tourism in any country around the world. However, various areas of controversy have arisen from the research. Whereas Weaver and Lawton (2013) have argued that there is a reciprocal relationship between the tourists and the attitudes of the residents, Garcia, Vazquez and Macias (2015) argues that tourism has both positive and negative effects on the local residents. As such, they disagree on whether the tourists and the local residents influence tourism. Additionally, through the social exchange theory advanced by Vargas-Sanchez et al. (2013), both the residents and the tourists should benefit from tourism development. However, other authors state that only the tourists benefit and the residents are not involved. As such, there is a need for research on the role that the tourists have on influencing the attitudes of the residents, specifically, there is need to evaluate whether the tourists attitude influence those of the residents.
In conclusion, the tourism sector is one of the most important in the development of the economy of a country. The effects of the attitudes of the local residents on the tourism and seasonality sector has been the subject of research by many scholars. They have based their studies in different theoretical perspectives and deployed different data collection methods. However, most of them have concluded those positive respondents attitudes results to tourism development while negative attitudes chase away the tourists as they close other destinations where they get a warm welcome. However, the scholars have failed to agree on whether the tourists have an influence on the attitudes of the residents. As such, further research is required to establish the role that the attitudes of the tourists have on influencing the attitudes of the local residents.
Bimonte, S. and Faralla, V., 2016. Does residents' perceived life satisfaction vary with tourist season? A two-step survey in a Mediterranean destination. Tourism Management, 55, pp.199-208.
GarauVadell, J.B., DiazArmas, R. and GutierrezTano, D., 2014. Residents' perceptions of tourism impacts on island destinations: A comparative analysis. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(6), pp.578-585.
Garcia, F.A., Vazquez, A.B. and Macias, R.C., 2015. Resident's attitudes towards the impacts of tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 13, pp.33-40.
Vargas-Sanchez, A., Porras-Bueno, N. and de los Angeles Plaza-Mejia, M., 2013. Residents attitude to tourism and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research, p.0047287513506295.
Wang, S., Bickle, M. and Harrill, R., 2010. Residents' attitudes toward tourism development in Shandong, China. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(4), pp.327-339.
Weaver, D.B. and Lawton, L.J., 2013. Resident perceptions of a contentious tourism event. Tourism Management, 37, pp.165-175.
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