Qualitative Methodology and Design

Published: 2019-07-15 09:00:00
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Methodology in research involves all the processes, strategies and the approaches used in data collection, analysis, and the presentation (Lapan, Quartaroli & Riemer, 2012). It involves a combination of analysis methods that seek to create a better understanding of a study. This paper will, therefore, discuss the phenomenological approach and evaluate how well it answered the research questions in the article. Sample size, sample procedures, data instruments, data collection, and data analysis are also discussed.

Description and Evaluation of the Research Methodology, Approach, and Design

The phenomenological approach in research is applied when an individual phenomenon has been poorly defined. The approach is said to be phenomenological because it explores personal experiences instead of making a general judgment at the same time seeking to understand the participants personal world (Moustakas, 2004). It argues that conclusive remarks cannot be reached without depending on the researchers personal conceptions that are necessary to authenticate the participants experience through an interpretative process. In short, the study of the participants experience is designed to add deeper meaning to the existing experiences.

Research approach and design

The research design acts as the blueprint for the study and highlights the approach and methodology used to gather information. The design assumed both qualitative and quantitative collection and analysis of data. Qualitative data took the form of interviews, records, observation notes and documents while quantitative data took the form of checklists, instrument data, and statistical records. In this scenario, the research seeks to investigate participants experience with compulsive hoarding through gaining an understanding of their personal opinions.

The Phenomenological approach was chosen as the best method for the study since it covers both phenomenological and interpretative approaches. The unique personal experiences of participants who lived with compulsive hoarding are recorded at the same time analyzing their personal world. Further, the results make sense only after the interpretative process.

Description and Evaluation of the Sample and Sampling Procedures

The study sample is a subset of a study population. Conducting a study using an entire population is expensive, and will take up much time. The research may also be ambiguous. For example, if the study involves conducting research on families with people suffering from compulsive hoarding, finding all households in the country is a tedious process, only to get similar results. Therefore, the best approach is to divide the study population into manageable study samples.

The study included questionnaires and interviews. The interviews were tape recorded as the questionnaires filled by the participants. These interviews involved both face-to-face and telephone whereby nine were conducted in person while two interviews were conducted over the phone. The questionnaires were designed in a way that those interviewed included their concerns, experiences, and interests.

The research also encouraged depth and detail response on the participants expectations, experience, and feelings concerning family members who hoards. Additionally, each respondent was monitored for distress during the process to ensure that the research was conducted effectively. Limitations like time factor demand for compensation and the resignation of some members before the interview also contributed to determining the study sample.

Simple sampling procedures were appropriate for the study because experience with each participant was noted and a description of interaction with those hoarding disability noted. Additionally, the sample helped discuss their general experience with compulsive hoarding.

Description and Evaluation of the Data Collection Procedures

Data collection procedures involve approaches used in gathering information from a variety of sources and include both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method majorly relies on random sampling and the structured data collection instruments and produce results that are easy to summarize, compare and make a conclusion.

The Quantitative method of research focuses on testing hypothesis derived from the theory but depends on the research question. In this case, the participants are randomly picked to control the outcome statistically. In case the population is large, probability sampling can be applied to select the participants.

Quantitative data collection strategies include experiments, personal observation, or tape recording. Data can also be obtained from the relevant management information systems or administer surveys which involve closed ended questionnaires like face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and questionnaires. Interviews are more structured in quantitative research than in qualitative since the researcher seeks to get a standard answer and nothing more. Persona or face-to-face interviews enabled the researcher to establish rapport with potential participants hence corporation in the research. However, they are expensive and time-consuming when compared to other forms of interviews. Telephone interviews on the other side are less time consuming and less expensive. The disadvantage is that the response rate is not high as evident in the research.

Qualitative data collection approach helps provide useful information to understand the entire process from observable results. This method improves the quality of quantitative evaluations by generating evaluation hypothesis. The approach also strengthens the design questionnaires expand on the quantitative results.

Description and Evaluation of the Data Analysis Procedures

Description and Evaluation of the Data Analysis Procedures

Data analysis involves examination of the collected data to reveal the relationship, trends, and patterns that that relate to the topic of study. Data is subjected to statistical operations to tell the relationship that exist between the variables in a study (Creswell, 2014). This will help draw a conclusion from the analysis to understand better the topic study topic.

Data is collected in forms of numbers then turned into quantitative form for further analysis. For instance, the researcher counts the number of times an event occurs in the interviews. From the article, data collected was analyzed according to the type of data. Primary data was analyzed separately from secondary data. The primary data included results from the questionnaires, and interviews while secondary data was comprised of records, case studies, books, and articles (Wilson & Maclean, 2011). Secondary data was analyzed using the exploratory method while primary data was analyzed using the explanatory method.

The research implied the use of tables to make statistical illustrations. The analysis was also conducted on the basis of the research questions, with each research question being answered separately. The results analyzed from the research questions were then combined to respond to the main research question.

Conclusion

Methodology defines the research processes, strategies, design and methods used in acquiring and analyzing data. The most suitable research method chosen for the study was the phenomenological approach. It explores personal experiences instead of making a general judgment and seeks to understand the participants personal world at the same time. The research design involved the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data is useful in explaining occurrences while quantitative data gives figures and statistics used to support the results. The research population entails all people affecting the study. The instruments used in research include printed questionnaires, online surveys, and interviews. After data collection, the information was analyzed according to its type. Primary data was analyzed separately from secondary data. The information was also analyzed and interpreted according to the research questions, by using the results obtained to build up to the outcome of the main research question.

References

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Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Lapan, S. D., Quartaroli, M. T., & Riemer, F. J. (2012). Qualitative research: An introduction to methods and designs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Moustakas, C. E. (2004). Phenomenological research methods.

Wilson, S., & Maclean, R. (2011). Research methods and data analysis for psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

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