|Type of paper:||Course work|
|Categories:||Counseling Mental health Post traumatic stress disorder|
Rape is engaging in unwanted sexual acts which may occur in different forms such as an anal, vagina, or oral penetration. It's one of the major crime that is experienced worldwide either through the use of force/threat or intoxication of drug/alcohol. Rape can happen to both male and female though most of the prevalent incidences reported are those relating to females. It's thus essential to understand some stereotypes that make it hard for a rape victim to seek assistance (Goldenberg et al., 2016). The related epidemiology research shows that rape does not only occur to older women, as most people believe.
Additionally, it's not true that victims who seek recent medical attention have were raped more than once in their lifetime. Rape victims may have undergone the ordeal during their childhood stages. Another stereotype held by most people is that those who rape others are usually strangers. However, research shows that the perpetrators of this heinous crime are traditionally people who are well known by the victim (Hine & Murphy 2017). The above stereotypes make most victims believe that rape is something that should only happen to older women. It thus makes it hard for victims to seek help and medical attention becomes so hard for most people.
It's thus essential to make good use of case finding and screening; critically assess the rape-related issues i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the end, one may suggest practical treatment approaches for the victims. The above key components are critical as they will help the health practitioner understand the full effects that sexual assault has on the individual. Previous epidemiological -related research shows that sexual assault and rape are the significant precipitating situations that consequently leads to PTSD, especially in women (Gong, Kamboj & Curran 2019). Some of the factors that increased the risk of PTSD include; multiple victimizations from other forms of exposure; history of the family relating to psychopathology; injury as a result of an accident; lower perception of individuals in relation to the social support system and response pertaining to peritraumatic dissociation (Sayed, Iacoviello & Charney 2015).
Young, (2017), states that it's essential to understand some of the biological factors that may lead increased cases of PTSD which include; stress response in relation to hormonal mediators; functionality of the neuropeptide and neurochemical reactions among other hormonal interactions. It's also evident from research that the genetic make-up of a person plays an essential role in matters relating to PTSD. It's thus crucial to systematically undertake a thorough assessment and evaluation before attending to a rape victim. The following paragraphs present the systematic steps that should when attending to a rape victim.
Screening Tools and Assessment Procedure
There is need to use effective engagement tools during the screening and assessment process which include; psychometrically related sound instruments i.e., a scale relating to the impact of the event; Davidson questionnaire that relates to trauma; use of interviews for instance structured interviews regarding clinical matters; the use of a clinician PTSD checklist list concerning DSM-IV PTSD scenarios. The above tool will help in assessing and screening for a history of various trauma that might have led to the development of PTSD (Prochaska, Baillargeon & Temple 2016). The initial assessment for a rape victim requires the use of a language that is behaviorally related to creating a good rapport with the victim, which will enhance the answers provided by the respondent.
It's essential to use empathetic and not sympathetic statements just before beginning the interview to create a conducive environment for the person. The medical practitioner in charge should not only focus on referral event during the assessment but rather conduct a thorough interview relating to historical trauma events. Last but not list, the clinician should address the various assault characteristics such as panic /fear associated with the peritraumatic events, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim (Peter-Hagene & Ullman 2015). Behavioral assessment is critical since the injury incurred may be the leading cause of PTSD. Additionally, a thorough evaluation relating to the immediate needs of the victim ought to be addressed, including his/her safety as well as risk factors concerning revictimization.
Interventions: Psychosocial and Pharmacological Approaches
Some of the cost-effective method applicable in a rape scenario include; use of video, which is one of the effective technique in psychosocial interventions. The technique should aim at reducing the symptoms relating to PTSD (Cook et al., 2018). The video helps the victim in visualizing how the events as the therapists encourage the victim to focus and shed more light on the most emotional part of the whole scenario.
The video should have a component elaborating on psychoeducation which explains the various adaptive/coping mechanism geared towards stress reduction. Other interventions include; use of exposure therapy, conducting training that assists in managing anxiety and use of cognitive therapy. The exposure therapy utilizing both the Vivo and imaginal exposure should be long enough to help the victim to heal quickly. Other interventions that help in the reduction of stress that consequently results in lack of sleep include the use of stress inoculation therapy (Meichenbaum 2017).
The approach uses medically proven interventions which aid in the release of various hormones that assists in consolidating the memory and learning process of an individual who has undergone a traumatic experience. For instance, the use of an adrenergic antagonist may help in releasing specific stress hormone that will attenuate effects relating to memory (Wang et al., 2018). The use of cognitive-behavioral therapy is crucial in reducing the stress disorder relating to posttraumatic events significantly.
The trauma focused-cognitive behavioral therapy TF-CBT, according to Cisler et al., (2016), focusses on providing opportunities for the rape victim. The victim is able to shed more light on the root cause of her fears and process the trauma. Eventually, the person then comes up with a coping mechanism that will assist her to deal with stimuli that usually lead to such traumatic reactions. The strategy further helps the victim to build and maintain a safe environment and more so adapt excellent social skills that will enhance his/her interpersonal skills
Goldenberg, T., Stephenson, R., Freeland, R., Finneran, C., & Hadley, C. (2016). 'Struggling to be the alpha': Sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men. Culture, health & sexuality, 18(8), 875-889.
Hine, B., & Murphy, A. (2017). The impact of victim-perpetrator relationship, reputation and initial point of resistance on officers' responsibility and authenticity ratings towards hypothetical rape cases. Journal of criminal justice, 49, 1-13.
Gong, A. T., Kamboj, S. K., & Curran, H. V. (2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder in victims of sexual assault with pre-assault substance consumption: a systematic review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 92.
Sayed, S., Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2015). Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma. Current psychiatry reports, 17(8), 70.
Young, G. (2017). PTSD in court II: Risk factors, endophenotypes, and biological underpinnings in PTSD. International journal of law and psychiatry, 51, 1-21.
Prochaska, J. D., Le, V. D., Baillargeon, J., & Temple, J. R. (2016). Utilization of professional mental health services related to population-level screening for anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among public high school students. Community mental health journal, 52(6), 691-700.
Peter-Hagene, L. C., & Ullman, S. E. (2015). Sexual assault-characteristics effects on PTSD and psychosocial mediators: A cluster-analysis approach to sexual assault types. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7(2), 162.
Cook, J. M., Simiola, V., McCarthy, E., Ellis, A., & Stirman, S. W. (2018). Use of reflective journaling to understand decision making regarding two evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD: Practice implications. Practice Innovations, 3(3), and 153.
Meichenbaum, D. (2017). Stress inoculation training: A preventative and treatment approach. In The Evolution of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (pp. 117-140). Routledge.
Wang, C., Wang, Q., Xiang, B., Chen, S., Xiong, F., & Ji, Y. (2018). Effects of propranolol on neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients with infantile hemangioma: a case-control study. BioMed research international, 2018.
Cisler, J. M., Sigel, B. A., Steele, J. S., Smitherman, S., Vanderzee, K., Pemberton, J & Kilts, C. D. (2016). Changes in functional connectivity of the amygdala during cognitive reappraisal predict symptom reduction during trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy among adolescent girls with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological medicine, 46(14), 3013-3023.
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