Photosynthesis

Published: 2017-12-02 14:14:30
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There are three different form of photosynthesis which includes the C3, C4 and CAM. All the three forms of photosynthesis are based on two different pathways; the first path being the light reaction path. This is where the energy from the sun is directly taken up by the green element in plants known as chlorophyll to split water producing oxygen. The second pathway is known as the dark reaction or the carbon fixation cycle. The carbon dioxide is absorbed to make sugar. The energy from the light reactions is applied in driving the process. The following are the photosynthetic pathways of different species in the ecosystem.

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Photosynthesis pathway

Species

Family

(Ehleringer, Cerling and Dearing 190-196)

C3 Pathway

Echiumrauwolfii Del. = E. arabicum R. Mill

Boraginaceous

(Ehleringer, Cerling and Dearing 193)

It has a C3 photosynthetic pathway as shown below; The equation

CO2(Carbon dioxide in from stomata) + RuBP (Ribulose bisphosphate already in plant) + the enzyme RUBISCO (Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) “fixes” carbon from the atmosphereà2PGA (phospholygerate)

Trichodesmaafricanum (L.)

Lehm. var. heterotrichumBornm. &Kneuck.

(Ruddiman pg,316)

These include shrubs, lianas, the mangroves and the annuals. These plants have either the C4 or the CAM type of photosynthesis pathway

Gypsophila capillaris (Forssk.) C. Chr.

Caryophyllaceae

(Monson 563)

The plant uses the C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis.

Cornulacamonacantha Del.

Chenopodiaceae

(Monson 566)

C4photosynthetic pathway

Cornulacasetifera (Dc.) Maq.

(Monson 563)

The C4 form of photosynthesis path

SuaedaveraForssk. ex J. Gmel. = S. fruticosa

(Monson 564)

It has a C4 photosytnthesis pathway

HelianthemumvesicariumBoiss.

Cistaceae

(Monson 564)

C4photosynthesis pathway

Anthemisarvensis L.

(Ehleringer, Cerling and Dearing 99)

C3photosynthetic pathway.

Anvilleagarcinii(Burm.f.) DC.

(Monson 563)

C4 photosynthesis pathway

Atractylismernephthae Asch. Schweinf.

&Letourne = A. arabicusRech.

(Monson 565)

The photosynthesis pathway is C4

Carthamusoxycantha M. Bieb.

(Monson 555)

C4 photosynthetic pathways

Centaureasinaica Dc.

(Sage2)

Chamaemelum nobile ... Photosynthetic pathway, 4.02, C3

Chamaemelummixtum (L.) All.

(Sage, 4)

(C3/C4) photosynthetic pathway

Echinopsglaberrimus Dc.

(Sage 11)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

GarhadiolusangulosusJaub. &Spach.

(Sage12)

CAM photosynthetic pathway

Launaeaangudtifolia (Desf.) Kuntze

(Sage12)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Leontodonhispidus(Delile.) Boiss.

(Monson 563)

C4 photosynthetic pathway

OnopordumsibthorpianumBoiss. &Heldr.

(Ruddiman 12)

CAM photosynthetic pathway

PicrisaltissimaDelile.

(Pessarakli42)

CAM photosynthetic pathway

PicrisbabylonicaHand-Mazz.

(Pessarakli47)

CAM photosynthetic pathway

Pseudognaphaliumluteoalbum (L.)

Hilliard & B. L. Burtt.

(Pessarakli51)

CAM photosynthetic pathway

Scorzonerapapposa Dc.

(Pessarakli39)

C4 photosynthetic pathway

ScorzoneraschweinfurthiiBoiss.

(Pessarakli40)

C4 photosynthetic pathway

SeneciobelbeysiusDelile.

(Pessarakli42)

C4 photosynthetic pathway

Urospermumpicroides (L.) F.W. Schmidt

(Pessarakli99)

C4 pathway

Anastaticahierochuntica L.

Cruciferae

(Pessarakli99)

C4 pathway

Coronopusdidymus (L.) Sm.

(Monson 98)

C4 pathway

Diplotaxisharra(Forssk.) Boiss.

(Pessarakli102)

C4 pathway

EnarthrocarpusstrangulatusBoiss.

(Pessarakli32)

C4 pathway

Eruca sativa Mill.

(Pessarakli32)

C4 pathway

Erucariacrassifolia (Forssk.) Delile

(Pessarakli45)

C4 pathway

Erucariahispanica (L.) Druce

(Pessarakli54)

C4 pathway

LepidiumaucheriBoiss.

’’

C4 pathway

Andrachnetelephioides L.

Euphorbiaceous

C4 pathway

Euphorbia granulataForssk.

C4 pathway

Euphorbia prostrataAiton

’”

C4 pathway

Euphorbia retusaForssk.

(Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Agropyroncristatum (L.) Willd.

Gramineae

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

BromusdanthoniaeTrin.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

BromushaussknechtiiBoiss.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

BromussericeusDrobov

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Bromusscoparius L.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Centropodiaforskalii (Vahl) Cope

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C4 photosynthesis pathway.

Loliummultiflorum Lam.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

C4 photosynthesis pathway.

Loliumperennialenne L.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

The C4 pathway of photosynthesis

Phalarisparadoxa L.

Waller and Lewis, 1-17)

The C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis

Salvia aegyptiaca L.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

AstragaluspalaestinusEig

Leguminosae

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

HippocrepisareolataDesv.

(Ramawat 197

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

HippocrepiscyclocarpaMurb.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

Lotus lanuginosusVent.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

Medicagomonspeliaca(L.) Trautv.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

Medicagopolymorpha L.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

Retamaraetam (Forssk.)

Webb &Berthel.

(Ramawat 198)

C4 photosynthesis pathway,.

Tephrosiapurpurea (L.)

Pers. ssp. Leptostachya (DC.) Brummitt

(Ramawat 198)

C4-photosynthesis pathway

Trigonellalaciniata L.

(Ruddiman 44)

C3 pathway

Cistanchephelypaea (L.) Cout.

Orobanchaceae

(Pessarakli22)

It employs the C4 photosynthetic path

HypecoumgesliniiCoss. & Karl.

Papaveraceae

(Pessarakli 99)

This is a C3 photosynthetic pathway plant

Papaver glaucumBoiss.

&Hausskn. ex Bieb

(Pessarakli23)

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Plantagoalbicans L.

Plantaginaceae

C4photosynthetic pathway

PlantagocylindricaForssk

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Plantagolanceolata L.

C3 photosynthetic pathway

Plantagopsammophila Agnew

&Chalibi-Ka, bi.

C4 photosynthetic pathway

PolygonumaviculareL.

Polygonaceae

Uses C3 photosythetic pathway

PolygonumpalaestinumZoh

Pessarakli111)

C4 photosynthesis

Oligomerislinifolia (Vahl ex Hornem.)

J. F. Macbr. ( =Reseda linifoliaVahl ex Hornem.)

Resedaceae

Pessarakli121)

Many of these sour plants are endowed with the C4 photosynthetic pathway

Veronica polita Fr. (= V.didymasensuauct)

Scrophulariaceae

(Sage23)

Hyoscyamusdsertorum(Asch. ex Boiss.) V. Täckh.

Solanaceae

Pessarakli110)

C3 or C4 photosythetic pathway

Solanum nigrum L.

Pessarakli111)

The C3 photosynthesis pathway

Reaumuriahirtellajaub. &Spach

Tamaricaceae

Pessarakli119)

It employs C4 photosynthesis

TamarixtetragynaEhrenb

(Pessarakli111)

employs the C3photosynthetic pathway

DucrosiaflabellifpliaBoiss

’’

This is a plant with a C4 photosynthesis pathway

Pteroselinumcrispum (Mill.) A. W. Hill. =

P.Sativum (L.) P. Hoffm.

’’

Tordyliumaegyptiacum (L.) Poir.

’’

It has a C3 photosynthesis pathway

TribulusmacropterusBoiss.

Zygophyllaceae

References

MLA

Ehleringer, James R., Thure Cerling and Dennis Dearing. A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2006.

Monson, Russel. The C4 Plant Biology. New York: Academic Press, 1998.

Pessarakli, Mohammad. Handbook of Photosynthesis, Second Edition. New York: CRC Press, 2015.

Ruddiman, William. Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change. London: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Sage, Rowan. "The C4 Plants Lineages of Planet Earth." Journal of Experimental Botany Advance Access published March 16, 2011 (2011): 1-15.

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