Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Essay

Published: 2017-10-20 10:27:48
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Research paper
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The listing of the substances that ought to be banned and listed as doping substances has been successful through research. Research has indicated that doping has the effects of deleterious health effects such as high blood pressure and in some incidences, death (Hallmann, & Petry, 2013). However, athletics is the most affected sports by doping, sports such as cycling; football and swimming have been affected. Besides offering proof of the use of androgenic substances in the sports, research has also established that the transfusion of blood from the body of an athlete and later infusing the blood is a form of doping. Though no chemical stimulant is added to the body, the blood transfusion is a principal cause of doping as it injects additional oxygen into the human body, thereby increasing the body power. The current literature on doping is, therefore, limited to the cause, substances and effects of doping.

Research paper on performance enhancing drugs in sports

 Currently, there exists a research gap on how athletes can defend themselves against the accusations of doping. Legally, every athlete has the right to issue feedback on the doping results published by sports federations (Hannum, & Fuller, 2006). However, many athletes seem to be disadvantaged by the investigations as the tests are often conducted scientifically, and the athlete only allowed having legal representation. While there is agreement that doping is injurious to the health of an athlete, there is a need to conduct further research to establish the views that the athletes have on doping. The views of the athletes can only take place trough a qualitative study that is designed to take up the views of sampled athletes using qualitative research tools such as a questionnaire.

Proposed study

Research Questions

1.    Is the current method of awareness creation sufficient to inform the athletes on the adverse effects of doping?

2.    Do athletes suffer harm when using the performance enhancing drugs?

3.    Do some athletes use the performance enhancing drugs after the testing window is closed for an athletic activity to take place?

4.    What is the perspective of the athletes on the fairness of the disciplinary measures undertaken by the athletic federations regarding doping?

Hypothesis

H0: Athletes are not well informed of the doping rules and regulations, thus, the reason for continued engagement in doping activities.

H1: Athletes are aware of the doping rules, thus, their involvement in doping with substances that have not been listed by WADA.  

Variables

 The significant variables in the study are the Athletes’ level of awareness on doping and the attitude that they have on doping. The intent of awareness is to ensure that an individual is well informed of the causes and consequences of a given activity. The level of awareness ought to be integrating the positive and negative effects of a given substance. The awareness creation on doping to the athletes is packaged as a rule to the athletes that they must obey. There is little or no mention of the effects that doping may have on their physical health. Emphasis is laid on the unfair advantage that an athlete may have a competition if he or she uses performance enhancing drugs. Hypothetically, many athletes have a negative attitude towards doping, as they are not actively engaged in the determination of the doping rules. The negative attitude of the athletes has led to the athletes observing the doping rules as a punishment by the federations.

Research approach

 The proposed study aims at developing a questionnaire to identify the views that athletes may be having on the development of doping. The federations and the international Olympics committee agree that the enforcement of the doping rules has led to a reduction of doping activities. Results from the international Olympics committee medical committee has proven that less than 1.5% of tests conducted prove positive after creating awareness to the athletes on doping. However, the views of the athletes could bring in a newer perspective.

 The study is set to be premised on the research questions of the proposed study that have been identified above. The proposed study has four questions; therefore, the questionnaire is set to be divided into four main parts. The questionnaire is set to be open-ended in nature where the target respondents are set to write their opinions on the questions listed. Furthermore, the questionnaire is set to have the questions related to the study only and be exempt from taking in the personal information of the respondents.

 Ethics has to be observed in the proposed study by ensuring that each study responded is taken through the research questions and granted the permission to withdraw from the study whenever he or she wants. Each study participants is to be issued by a consent form before the participation in the study. The outcome of the study is also to be used for academic purposes only and where possible, the athletic federations may use the findings of the study to refine the doping rules that they have formed.

 Doping is a complex phenomenon in sports. Many scholars agree that doping can kill the career of an athlete besides aiding unfair competition in sports (Thieme, & Hemmersbach, 2010). Therefore, there is a need to use qualitative study in investigating the development of doping in posts with specific reference to the perspectives of the athletes as it builds up case information. Case information can only be built through a qualitative study. Through the qualitative method, the study can determine the attitudes and the causes of attitudes that athletes have on doping. However, the quantitative study is not able to establish quantitative prediction, as there are no standard responses that are likely to emanate from the study respondents.

Conclusion

 The qualitative method of research can be used to establish the construct that study respondents may have on a study topic. The views and perceptions that the athletes have on doping can only be identified through the proposed qualitative study. The study gap that is set to be placed under investigation is the attitudes that athletes have on doping and how the attitudes of the athletes contribute to the development of doping in sports. The proposed study has the assumption that doping has been in existence for more than a century and despite the progress that has been made to counter doping, doping still exists. The proposed study is also set to adhere to ethical codes of research by issuing consent forms to all the study participants before their participation in the study.


References

Gerlinger, K., Petermann, T., & Sauter, A. (2013). Gene Doping: Scientific Basis - Gateways - Monitoring. Norderstedt: Books on Demand.

Hallmann, K., & Petry, K. (2013). Comparative Sport Development: Systems, Participation and Public Policy. New York, NY: Imprint: Springer.

Hannum, E., & Fuller, B. (2006). Children's lives and schooling across societies. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.

Keim, M. (2014). Sport and development policy in Africa: Results of a collaborative study of selected country cases.

Mallia, L., Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Brand, R., Baumgarten, F., Tsorbatzoudis, H., & ... Lucidi, F. (2016). Doping use in sport teams: The development and validation of measures of team-based efficacy beliefs and moral disengagement from a cross-national perspective. Psychology Of Sport & Exercise, 2578-88. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.04.005

Nauright, J., & Parrish, C. (2012). Sports around the world: History, culture, and practice. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Paoli, L., & Donati, A. (2014). The sports doping market: Understanding supply and demand, and the challenges of their control. Springer.

Thieme, D., & Hemmersbach, P. (2010). Doping in sports. Berlin: Springer.

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