|Type of paper:||Annotated bibliography|
|Categories:||Sport Healthcare Substance abuse Drug abuse|
Brand, Ralf, et al. "Illegal Performance Enhancing Drugs and Doping in Sport: A Picture-basedBrief Implicit Association Test for Measuring Athletes' Attitude." German FederalInstitute of Sport Science.30 Jan. 2014
Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1747-597X9-7
The authors draw a close study on Substance Abuse, Treatment Prevention, and Policy. In their article attempts to explain doping as a primary variable for the prediction of athletes' intention of using performance-enhancing drugs. The authors further explain doping in sports as the existence of metabolites or prohibited substance in an athlete's sample which analyzed by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency). However, the article does offer a valuable source for this essay as its chapter provokes a concise overview of preliminary evidence of doping behavior. That is owing to its reliance on interplays of implicit explicit that are associated with automatic process dissociation. That offers context for analyzing the scope of doping intervention efforts and the assumption that doping behavior is instead an intentional choice among competing alternatives. Introduction of psychometrically methods of testing like doping-BAIT is, therefore, necessary for validation of the happenings of the impulse system.
Donday, Christopher, and Ranis, Gereige. "Performance Enhancing Drugs." Journal ofPediatrics inReview. June 2012; pp. 36 (6):265-272
Retrieved from doi:10.1542/pir.33-6-265
This article delves into reasons for the rise of performance-enhancing drugs among children and teenagers for the last decade. Donday and Gereige discuss ideas why pediatrics need to monitor Performance Enhancing Drugs (PED) Trends ofusage, perspectives of screening, and offering guidance on anticipatory. This article provides concise tools for this research as it depicts the reasons for the increased trends of performance-enhancing drugs among pre-teenagers and teenagers. The factors discussed in the report include a decrease in participation age in competitive sports, media focus in thinness in females and masculinity in males, pressure from couches and the availability of PEDs in numerous shapes and forms.Donday and Gereige emphasize on the need by pediatrics to be aware of the use of PEDs among their patients; identify the risks, signs, and symptoms and after that, offer guidance related to their use.
Harris, William. "10 Performance-enhancing Drugs That Aren't Steroids "Paris InternationalCorporation. 6 Nov. 2012.Retrieved from https://science.howstaffworks.com
This article is packed with useful information on PEDs that are not classified as steroids. Harris asserts that their effects vary, with some only beneficial to athletes playing particular sports, rendering it difficult for regulatory agencies to keep up. The 10 PEDs that aren't steroids as discussed by Harris include Erythropoietin, Human Growth Hormone, Brominate, Ephedrine, Diuretics, Albuterol, and COX-2 inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Tamoxifen and Creatine.
LaBotz, Michele, and Bernard, Griesemer. "Use of Performance Enhancing Substances.
The American Academy of Pediatrics. July 2006.Vol.138/ Issue 1
This book includes information on the reviewed report on the recent epidemiology use of Performance-enhancing substances (PESs). It discusses the concerns regarding the usage of legal PESs like increased rates of product contamination. Future use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and hazardous effects on youth sports participation experience are other significant concerns.LaBotz and Griesemer assert that a vast PESs are sold over the counter as supplements for diet. Most parents and athletes are never aware of these substances' risks of contamination nor the absence of active ingredients in these substances.
Le Gerche, Andre, and Maria Brosnan. "Circulation: Cardiovascular Effects of PerformanceEnhancing Drugs." American Heart Association.3 July 2017. Vol.135, No.1Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.1161.022535/circulation;135:89-99.
This article packages information on sports reputation, once geared towards health benefits and inspiration of the actual community legacy is currently threatened by PEDs.That has contributed to the injustice and unfair advantage to the athletes who are dishonest besides the adverse health risks associated with PEDs.The PEDs may affect the cardiovascular system by interfering with the myocardium, metabolism, and musculature. Le Gerche and Brosnan add that athletes, if not monitored, try experimental drugs that have zero established efficacy nor safety data.
MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia. "Should Performance Enhancing Drugs (such as steroids) beaccepted in Sports?" Journal of the American Medical Association. 20 Oct. 2018.
Retrieved from https//:Encarta.insn.com.
This encyclopedia defines performance-enhancing drugs as different substances, chemical agents, or designed processes that provide an advantage to the performance of an athlete. It discusses the effects of PEDs on the body like muscle enlargements, blood's oxygen-carrying capacity increment, among others. However, the use of such drugs is criticized to be unethical competitively and dangerous medically. Most organizations governing first amateur and professional sports have outlawed performance-enhancing drugs.
Oliver, Steve. "Drugs in Sports: Justifying Paternalism on the grounds of Harm." AmericanJournal of Sports Medicine. Dec.1996
Retrieved from http://sportsanddrugs.procon.org
Oliver offers a valuable source for this essay by grouping the performance-enhancing substances into four. First is stimulants whichinclude caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, and sympathomimetic drugs. Second is Erythropoietin, and next is Human Growth Hormone. Lastly, Anabolic Androgen Steroids, which involves synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone.
Savulescu, Julian, et al. "Performance-enhancing Drugs: Why we should Allow Performanceenhancing Drugs in Sports." British Journal of Sports Medicine.3 Aug.2004.Vol.38,Issue 3.Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2003.005249
This article offers an underlying critique of this essay by providing a proposition on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in the modern-day Olympics. It asserts that the use of PEDs in sports is not new, but it is instead becoming more productive. It farther adds that in spite of the health risks involved, coupled with the regulatory attempts to eliminate them from sports, PEDs are primarily known to be rife. It adds that when a famous athlete fails a dope test, it hardly raises eyebrows. The authors conclusively say that he regulators attempts to the elimination of PEDs from sports have been impossible. As long as the drugs are legaland freely available, then cheating in games is here to stay. They conclude that when PEDs are allowed in sports, the winner will be based on the most influential person. That is opposed to the one born with the best genetic potential, and this would make game less of a genetic lottery. That is because, determination of the winner would be based on the one within a combination of training, genetic potential, judgment, and psychology.
The American Academy of Pediatrics. "Use of Performance-enhancing Substances. " TheJournal of Pediatrics.4 April 2005. Retrieved from www.aaap.org
The journal offers a valuable source in this assay by giving a clear definition of PEDs as any substance taken in no pharmacologic dose aimed at improving sports performance. It can only be considered performance-enhancing if it is beneficial to sports by increasing speed, power, strength, endurance; or when altering his body weight and composition.PEDs include weight control agents like diet pills, stimulants, and laxatives. Others are agents of weight gain, like advertised over the counter products that increase muscle mass. Some are also pharmacologic agents taken that exceed the recommended therapeutic dose. Finally, some physiologic agents enhance oxygen carrying-capacity like blood doping and Erythropoietin, among others.
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