Free Essay on Organizational Management and Culture

Published: 2022-08-30
Free Essay on Organizational Management and Culture
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Management Organizational culture Leadership style
Pages: 2
Wordcount: 532 words
5 min read

Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y are leadership theories about how organizations should manage their workforce. According to McGregor, the leadership style that an organization's manager adopts depends largely on how they perceive of people who work under them and the assumptions that they hold about human nature and behavior. The manager under whom I have worked reflected many of the propositions relating to the two theories in various ways.

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To begin with, the manager used to apply the authoritarian leadership style a lot whereby he would control and coerce employees, particularly those who appeared to be lazy. He also used to use financial incentives to motivate workers. For example, in most cases, he would be present in the workplace directing employees to this and that and at times reprimanding some workers who appeared not to grasp the concepts. The manager's actions in these instances reflect the propositions related to Theory X. According to this theory, human beings are by their nature lazy, prefer supervision, lack ambition, are demotivated, are irresponsible, and would as much as possible to avoid work (Arslan & Staub, 2012).

Hence, a manager has to put in place a system of punishment and rewards, continuously control or coerce them to work, and motivate them. For instance, my previous manager rewarded employees who performed well through salary increment and punished those who incessantly failed to show progress by dismissing or demoting them. Through the system of rewards and punishments, the manager also reflected some of the elements of Theory Y which posits that since individuals have different needs, they must be motivated and appreciated to help them meet their needs and perform better. At other times, the manager would also reward those employees who showed creativity, innovation, responsibility, self-control, self-direction, and initiative, a management style associated with Theory Y.

Organizational culture refers to a collection of all the beliefs, normal, customs, and values that personnel in an organization share or hold in common and which regulate or guide actions and behavior within that organization (Sun, 2008). Hence, an organization's culture is expressed through a reflection of these values, principles, and beliefs in everyday actions and conduct of members of the organization. According to Florentian and Georgiana (2012), organizational culture may be expressed through management style, staff ethics, values displayed by employees, and attitude towards employees, clients, risks, and competitors. An example of how organizational culture is expressed at my college is the school's ethics system in which all learners and staff are expected to at all times display the ethical values of respect, honesty, empathy, integrity, and accountability. Another example is in its mission statement, charts, creeds, and philosophy where the values and principles which the college stands for and strive to promote are clearly displayed.


Arslan, A., & Staub, S. (2012). Theory X and Theory Y type leadership behavior and its impacton organizational performance: Small business owners in the Sishane Lighting and Chandelier District. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 75, 102-111

Florentina, P., & Georgiana, M.R. (2012). Organizational culture and its way of expression within the organization. Retrieved from

Sun, S. (2008). Organizational culture and its themes. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(12), 137-140

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