The influence is a multiplicative combination of the effects of 3 main factors: the number of sources of influence, the proximity of their location to the "target" of influence, the power of these sources. No matter whether the group is trying to affect "deviant" by force or by a trust, the power (status, knowledge, power), the number and proximity of existing factors will have a significant impact on the success of such attempts.
Social factor influence
status Many people are resorting to riskier decisions, trying to improve their status.
If you gave advice from people with higher status, you are listen to his opinion, and make a decision that may have incomplete information.
peer pressure Comparing ideas with others and seeing the support of its position, individuals could further insist on. That is, if in the process of group discussion individual sees that others take positions aimed at a valuable alternative, he strengthens his categorical judgments to profitably stand out among others.
experience The man inclined to trust own experience and the experience of others, but "Experience teaches us not to trust the experience."
Age Some people tend to trust older people, as they have a wealth of experience; young people are often skeptical about the council of elders, which leads to errors
religion Due to incorrect interpretations of religious history or selfish intentions of the people advocating the adoption of possible irrational solutions
image A lot of people create a situation in which, they believe, can produce the most favorable impression on others
force Before you a strong person, he has great power of influence, if you can not resist it, most likely decide that you imposed
knowledge If you do not have the knowledge you believe others are more knowledgeable (you think) man
sex Very often men are considered as more reliable sources of data, and the best managers.
environment If a person is confused or easily suggestible, its environment can impose a solution for their own purposes
Influence ability to affect someone's views or actions. Social influence is realized in two processes: communication (during interaction, discussion of various matters with people authoritative for the person he comes to the defined conclusions) and comparison (in search of social approval the person makes decisions which are expected by other people from him in this situation).
Decision - making is a choice of the best decision from a set of alternatives. Process of making of administrative decisions is influenced by a number of factors :
1. Risk degree - always exists a probability of making the incorrect decision that can adversely influence the organization that conducts to social pressure.
2. Time which is provided to the manager for decision-making. In practice most of the Heads have no opportunity to analyze all possible alternatives, having time shortage.
3. Degree of innovativeness of personnel is the existence of creative potential of personnel and innovativeness of its organizational culture.
4. Leadership skills of the manager is the ability to make the correct decisions and implement them .
The example given below describes the circuit of decision-making on Carnegie's model .
Figure 1 - Carnegie's decision-making model
At a stage of "conflicts" a society actively influence the manager there can be pressure, conflict, hostility. Making of the wrong decision in smb's despite is possible at emotional outburst. At a stage of "uncertainty" the panic mood of personnel can be transmitted to the Head that may cause a confusion, a mental block, a panic. Thus the manager will look for the decision not independently but entirely relying on someone, forgetting about responsibility. Also when information is incomplete the choice of the wrong alternative is possible because of concealment of information by colleagues, their incompetence or in virtue of persuasion. At a stage of "formation of the coalition" the situation of collective disapproval of opinion that could lead to inclination of the opinion to the collective one cause the return reaction is possible for solution of a problem. During "searching" and generation of decisions the generation of not all alternatives is possible because of distortion of procedures of decisions searching. When "making a satisfying decision" an option to choose the first available decision in virtue of laziness, last experience or perceptivity is possible.
The psychological theory of decisions explains behavior of the Head in the course of decision-making. Any Head is under close attention of subordinates constantly, and its personal qualities markedly affect the relations with personnel and a process of development and implementation of the decision . Temperament, health and reactions refer to unchangeable personal qualities. Suggestibility, emotionality level, professionalism, experience, ability to risk, thinking parameters, appearance refer to weakly changeable personal qualities. Will, responsibility, sociability refer to strongly changeable personal qualities.
A number of the qualities which have an impact on process of development and implementation of the management decision is allocated.
Figure 2 Groups of factors influencing the development and implementation of the management decision
Factors of influence of society:
Family, relatives, friends
Susceptibility to look for approval
Susceptibility to search for advisers, figures of authority
Mood of personnel
Social norms and standards of behavior
Temperament of the Head is an important factor. It is revealed that melancholics estimate all available information taking into account the risks better and make more considered decisions.
Stress is the influence factor during decision-making . Psychologists from the university of California, USA, proved that the stress forces people to pay more attention to positive information, leaving aside the negative aspects. For example, the person who tries to make the decision whether to go to the new work in a condition of a stress considers such factors as higher salary, and doesn't pay an attention that the place of work is too far from home. That is there is a big susceptibility to risk.
However, there are situations when the manager obviously makes irrational decisions. The irrational model of decision-making is based on the assumption that decisions are made before alternatives are investigated. It is applied:
- for the solution of essentially new, unusual tasks, on which it is difficult to make a decision;
- for the solution of problems in the conditions of time shortage;
- when a manager or a group of managers have enough power to impose the decision.
The sense of actions of the manager is to move forward on the way of a problem solution, despite possible mistakes. "The chaotic movement is more preferable, than the ordered inaction" . In many cases the managers are inspired to create the atmosphere of experimenting, even reckless nesses to promote creative process of decision-making. If one idea fails, it is necessary to check another one. Failure often forms the basis of success. All of us are subject to influence of society which demands a certain behavior and decisions and which do its bit into each process.
M. W. Waldron, J. Vsanthakumar, and S. Arulraj, 1996, Chapter 13 - Improving the organization and management of extension [Online] - Available at: <http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5830e/w5830e0f.htm>
Options for the organization of small forest owners in Central and Eastern Europe for sustainable forest management, 2000, Roma [Online] -Available at: <http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/x7566e/x7566e07.htm>
Introducing environmental decision makingIntroducing environmental decision making, 2013, The Open University [Online] - Available at: <http://www.open.edu/openlearn/nature-environment/introducing-environmental-decision-making/content-section-1.2>
DRJIM, 2011, 4 Ways That IT Managers Can Learn To Make Better Decisions [Online] - Available at: < http://theaccidentalitleader.com/management-2/4-ways-that-it-managers-can-learn-to-make-better-decisions>
ZIMMERER S. L., 1980, ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION MAKING: THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS USED BY ADMINISTRATORS IN A SMALL URBAN DISTRICT [Online] - Available at: < http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI8109559/>
Carnegie Decision Model, 2009, Decide Guide [Online] -Available at: <http://www.decide-guide.com/carnegie-decision-model/>
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