|Type of paper:||Report|
|Categories:||Human resources Multiculturalism Organizational behavior Conflict management|
The first chapter highlights the features of successful management and how decision-makers can apply knowledge of organizational behavior (OB) to improve effectiveness in their companies. I have learned two essential ideas from this chapter. First, I have noted that while globalization presents opportunities to grow businesses, it is also a challenge in managing organizational behavior. Managers, however, can respond to globalization by working with people from different cultures. This approach is an effective way of creating multicultural environments while also building OB. Secondly, I have learned that evidence-based management is critical, especially in today's business environment, characterized by the existence of aggressive competition. This approach requires decision-makers to think scientifically in solving problems. This chapter has triggered thoughts of American corporations like Northern Rock, Toys R Us, Woolworths, and Enron that failed because of poor management. Executives in these organizations did not base their decisions in evidence-based management practices to achieve optimal utilization of resources. Knowledge about OB applies in my life because it fosters social responsibility awareness. This chapter has improved my understanding of how I should relate to people from diverse cultures.
The second chapter talks about the diversity of human resources and how workplace discrimination adversely impacts organizational effectiveness. I have learned that the demographics of the US workforce is increasingly becoming diverse. More precisely, today's American workforce is more racially and ethnically diverse than in the past. After reflecting on this trend, I concluded that globalization has partially contributed to this diversity because it has led to increased integration of labor markets. Another point that I have noted is that Americans with Disability Act require employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with mental and physical impairments. This chapter, however, has triggered memories of companies like Walmart that faced gender discrimination lawsuits in the past. A subsection about diversity management applies in my life and future work because it has taught me that I should be aware of other people's differences. By being sensitive to diverse needs, I will be in a better position to develop good relationships with other people. I will apply this idea in the future to attract and retain the best talents in my business.
Attitudes, Perceptions, and Personality Tests
The third chapter summarizes the correlation between attitudes and behavior. I have learned that counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is one of the most critical employee response to dissatisfaction. Actions that underpin CBW have far-reaching effects on the performance of an organization because it lowers the productivity of the workers. After reflecting on this point, I concluded that CWB not only reduces the productivity of employees, but it also taints the brand image. A bad reputation has long-term effects in that it makes a company less attractive to skilled employees. Besides, I have understood that job satisfaction partially contributes to an organization's overall turnover. This part of the reading has triggered memories about the strategies that human resource managers in my past workplaces used to enhance job satisfaction among employees in the organization. More specifically, the managers were keen on creating an engaging environment where the workers could exchange ideas on how to solve problems. Ideas about job satisfaction apply to my life because, at one point, I will develop different feelings about my job, depending on factors prevailing in the workplace.
Chapter four describes personality, factors that shape it, and how it is measured. The most exciting thing that I have learned in this chapter is how managers use personality tests to forecast the best candidates during recruitment and selection. The outcome of personality tests has become the basis of hiring decisions. I have learned that MBTI and Big Five Models personality assessment provides the managers with standardized tools of measuring how potential employees will behave in the work context. In this regard, I have noted that personality assessment offers an opportunity to predict job performance and, more importantly, the company fit. I found this chapter to be the most exciting part of the reading. However, it has left me with thoughts on how I should improve my personality types to suit different environments. Concepts about personality types apply in my life because future employers will classify me as either an introvert or an extrovert. I strive to become an extrovert since this personality will enable me to gain new knowledge by interacting with others in multicultural environments.
Chapter five describes the attribution theory and the link between perception and decision making. The most intriguing thing that I have learned in this section is how attribution theory can be used to explain other people's behaviors. I have noted that this theory gives more insights into whether internal or external factors cause behaviors that we observe in different people. Individuals have personal control over internally generated behaviors, while external ones are as a result of external causes. Besides, I have learned that perception shapes decision making because it impacts people's way of thinking. This chapter trigger thought on how managers can best improve the workplace to stimulate sensory impressions that enable employers to develop positive perceptions about their work environments. Ideas about the factors that influence perception apply to my life. The reason is that my social settings, workplaces, and the time shape my perception of different environments in my everyday life.
Emotions, Motivational Theories, and Corporate Politics
Chapter six describes the impacts of emotional labor on employees. I have noted from this part that there are four types of emotions that impact on the workers. These elements are deep acting, surface acting felt, and displayed emotions. In this context, emotional labor refers to the worker's expression of organizationally desired emotions. I have noted that workers show such feelings during an interpersonal transaction in the work environment. Another critical point that I have understood from the sixth chapter is that emotional dissonance is one of the main predictors of burn out, lower job satisfaction, and a decline in job performance. After comprehending ideas in this chapter, I have developed a sense that managers should hire professionals to help employees regulate emotional labor. The concept of emotional labor applies in my life because I have to manage my expressions and feelings to fulfill job requirements. More precisely, I am required to regulate my emotions when engaging with others.
Chapter seven explores the differences and similarities between traditional theories of motivation. This part of the reading also highlights the defining features of motivation that organizational managers should consider when designing strategies to inspire workers to achieve their potentials. I have learned that there are three critical elements of motivation. These components are direction, persistence, and intensity. The latter is concerned with how hard employees struggle to achieve their goals while persistence measures how long individuals can maintain their efforts. Besides, I have noted that Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs has high acceptance from organizational managers than other traditional theories of motivation. After a critical reflection of this situation, I noted that practicing managers recognize this theory because some research has validated it. Another reason is that Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is logical and easy to understand. This chapter has triggered a question about what the managers should do to ensure motivational strategies in their organizations are not coercive. I believe that the use of extrinsic rewards to motivate workers should not coerce them to achieve goals and targets beyond their professional ability. Critical concepts of motivation in this chapter influence my work and future career because it reflects the approaches that managers will use to assess my productivity and contributions to the organization.
Chapter nine talks about the foundations of group behavior and how the roles of team members change in different circumstances. I have learned from this section that while groups are essential, the overall achievements have direct impacts on the self-esteem of its members. I have noted that people have emotional reactions to the success or failure of their group. After reflecting on what I learned from this chapter, I concluded that the performance or achievements of groups predict self-esteem among its members. However, social identities help individual members to understand who they are and where they fit in the context of groups. The main idea that I have developed after comprehending concepts in this chapter is about the best strategies that managers can employ to create environments that encourage the workers to form formal groups in the workplace. Such groups, however, should enable workers to achieve their targets, group goals, and the overall objectives of the organization. Ideas about the diversity and strategies of enhancing the cohesiveness of groups apply in my everyday work and even life. The reason is that my profession values collaboration in implementing tasks. More importantly, groups are essential in my profession, especially in solving everyday problems.
Chapter thirteen describes corporate politics and the differences between leadership and power from an organizational perspective. The most exciting thing that I have understood is about political skill. This concept refers to a person's ability to influence others towards the achievement of his/her goals. I have noted, in this regard, that individuals that have effective political skills have the potential to exert influence without others detecting it. The use of political skills is useful in instances where stakes are high. In most cases, politically-skilled people are the most effective users of such tactics. This chapter has led me to develop an idea that ineffective managers may misuse their powers to advance their interests in their organization. Such people tend to use their political skills to react to threats against their management practices and even their incompetence. Ideas about political skills apply in my life and also work. In this regard, I have confidence that I am a leader, and I have the potential to influence others towards a common goal. So, the concept of political skills fits in this scenario because I have to use such skills to exert influence on others to achieve their individual goals and, consequently, the organization's overall objectives.
Conflict Resolution and Managing Organizational Change
Chapter fourteen extensively talks about the process of solving conflicts and critical steps followed during negotiations. The most exciting idea that I have learned from this section is about the influence of culture on the choice of conflict resolution strategies. I have understood that individualist cultures tend to confront differences of opinion openly and directly. Collectivist cultures, on the other hand, value relations and would use indirect methods of solving disputes to preserve unity in the society. People from such cultures focus on promoting the good of society as a whole rather than individual interests.
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