Neurology in medicine is a branch concerned with any ailment of the nervous system, brain and spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. The nervous system is the most complex system making up the body. The peripheral system connects the central system to the body tissues via nerves. Nerve are categorized into two groups; cerebrospinal and sympathetic. Cerebrospinal nerves have general and special functions of the senses whereas sensitive senses whose impulses regulate the flow of fluids and excretion through sweat. The nerve system in general functions to command the brain to the muscles to enable reactions dependent on the surrounding environment. Nerves consist of nerve cells known as sensory neurons which send signals between places by generating impulses and conduction impulses between the brain and a different organ for interpretation. Motor neurons other hand are receptors of messages, this then allows for the muscles act upon their command (Tyldesley & Grieve, 2009).
A case study was conducted on Amy, a close friend, as she cooked dinner for her family. The objective of the study was to investigate how the nervous system functions when she pulls a pot off the stove and unintentionally touches the flame. In reaction, she successfully pulls her finger away from the furnace and instantly she distress pain from the burn. Upon contact with the burner, sensory neurons are signaled to carry impulses from the finger via fragile fibers within the muscle to the spinal cord. Finally, the signals are sent to the brain via the central nervous system (Matthews, 2003). Sensory neurons are afferent because they carry impulses towards the central nervous system the brain whereas the motor neuron is the efferent as it transmits impulses away from the central nervous system. Sensory neurons in the nerves receive the signal and send them to the brain for interpretation (Tyldesley & Grieve, 2009). On reaching the brain via the central nervous system, Amy's brain can send a signal back as impulses in the motor neuron through the spinal cord back to the fibers of bicep muscles. The muscles are commanded to contract hence causing the elbow joint to bend. Therefore, Amy can swiftly move the hand away from feeling the pain as a result.
Evolutionally, the man, has had to evolve to get the human body with a fully developed nervous system. The nervous system is crucial even to the early man for movement and sensation in search of food and avoids self-destruction ("Basics of Nervous System Anatomy with an Evolutionary Perspective," 2018). As humans grow, the spinal cord develops and can interpret information from various parts of the body just as Amy was able to process the data and efficiently respond. Certain special senses have also been known to develop significantly such as balance, hearing, and sense of taste. Even man understanding abilities are at an advanced all-time high as we are now capable of processing a lot of information and responding quite efficiently. It is however surprising how far the nervous system can still develop given time. This is just the beginning of its evolution.
Without the nervous system, humans would go extinct. Humans cannot survive without this system it is quite mandatory of in our day-to-day life. No inventions would have been made, such as fire meaning humans would survive on raw food. Man would be no better than plants that lack reason cause of no brain.
Glen at age 45 years old begins to notice signs of Parkinson's disease. His hands are shaky when performing his everyday tasks. His family members also start to see a muffled speech, and he shuffles as he walks. On examination, he is diagnosed with Early Onset Parkison's disease. Early Onset Parkison's disease is a condition caused as a result of mutation of several genes for protein stored in the chromosome. It is the type that attacks young people less than 20 years. It is quite rare since the Parkison's disease is known to attack people aged 60 years and above.
The Parkison's disease attacks the nerve cells in the interior parts of the brain patent as the basal ganglia. These nerve cells tasked with the production of dopamine that functions to relay messages and body movement (Rowland, 1994). These cells begin to die off. When almost 80 percent of the cells are killed, signs start to show, for example; stiffness, slowness, and loss of balance. This means there is not enough dopamine in the brain to help relay messages. Glutamate, a form of neurotransmitter, intense levels help to counter the lack of dopamine.
Synapse is a point that occurs between neurons such as the sensory and motor neurons as a connection. Synapses allow travel of impulses in a single direction ensuring the movement is one-way in the nervous system. Glen's neurologist is likely to administer dopamine agonists with levodopa used as conjunctive therapy to help activate the antiparkinsonian influence. The agonists are essential in cubing the levels of levodopa needed to avoid its prolonged time adverse effects.
After genetic testing of Glen's DNA, carrying an autosomal superior variation in the SNCA, he is diagnosed with the Parkinson's disease. Given that he has three children, it is unlikely that his children will inherit the disease. This is because of mitochondrial DNA defect hence on infrequent occasions do families inherit the disease. I would, however, advice Glen to have his children checked for the benefit of the doubt.
Finally, Patricia at 37 years old visit a physician upon experiencing symptoms; dizziness, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness in her fingers and fingers for some diagnosis. Numeral tests conducted and the determination is multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a deep-rooted disease that starts at an early age in young adults that attacks various areas of the central nervous system (Rowland, 1994). The MS attacks multiple nerve cells in the central nervous system known as the neurons. The most attacked are those located in the white matter tissue. The apparent cause of MS is unknown though studies show that it is susceptible to being inherited in a family.
The nervous system of the body is quite an integral part of the daily functioning of the brain. Care must be taken to recognize any abnormal operation for the consequences of ignorance could lead to death. Most of the disorders affecting the system have no particular medication for a cure. It is also our responsibility to help those affected by such diseases by forming health organizations that can help fund medication; medicine is costly. In developing countries, as a result, more people are dying due indigent health care.
"Basics of Nervous System Anatomy with an Evolutionary Perspective." (2018). LimbicZen. Retrieved 8 March 2018, from https://limbiczen.wordpress.com/neurological-topics/basics-of-nervous-system-anatomy-with-an-evolutionary-perspective/
Matthews, G. (2003). Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle (4th ed.). NEW YORK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Rowland, R. (1994). Merritt's Neurology 10th Edition (10th ed.). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers.
Tyldesley, B., & Grieve, J. (2009). Muscles, Nerves, and Movement. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
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