Neurocognitive Disorder (NCDs)

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Neurocognitive disorders also referred to as dementia involves the impairments of the cognitive abilities such as the memory, problem solving and the perception (James &Butcher, 2014). One needs to exhibit a cognitive decline and functioning so as to be considered as being diagnosed with a cognitive disorder. The neurocognitive disorder results from the Alzheimers disease.

Alzheimers disease

It is a cognitive disease that counts for 60% to 70% of some cases of the cognitive disorders (James &Butcher, 2014). It is considered as the neurodegenerative disease that usually starts in minimal approaches or slow terms and at the end, it becomes very chronic. Alzheimer is known as the primary degenerative disease of the cerebral disease of the unknown etiology. Neuropathological and neurochemical features highly characterize it. Alzheimer develops in onset very slowly and at the end, it raptures and become very chronic and severe. There is two onset, development of the Alzheimers disease.

The development of the disease (onset) occurs before the age of 65, and it has a rapid course that causes its deterioration. It is aligned with multiple marked disorders of the higher cortical functions. The onset that occurs in that period is referred to as the early onset (James &Butcher, 2014). In some instances, the disease onset occurs after the age of 65 years. It is often in the late 70s or even after that. It occurs with a slow progression and with memory impairments as the primary feature.

Behavioral criteria

The individual who suffers from the neurocognitive disorder in this sense the Alzheimers disease portrays different characteristics. The most common behavior with the person from the cognitive disorder is difficulty in remembering events that have happened recently. As the disease advances, the symptoms start to change, and the person starts to experience a problem with the language, being disoriented, which include even getting lost in places that they are familiar with. The person experiences frequent mood swings, loss of motivation and they are unable to manage themselves in the right manner, especially their behavior (James &Butcher, 2014). As the condition continues to deteriorate, the individuals isolate themselves, even to the families and the society.

If care is not taken, the functioning of the body is lost, and death can result. According to the diagnoses that are given, the average life expectancy of someone suffering from the Alzheimers disease is three to nine years irrespective of the variation in speed progression. Other symptoms of Alzheimers disease are challenges in planning and solving some problems, difficulties in completing a degree of task at home, work or worse at leisure, confusion with time, trouble making out the visual images, misplacing things and having trouble to retrace steps, decreased or poor judgments and changes in personality

Incidents Rates and Causes

The Alzheimers disease is believed to be caused by the genetic where many genes are involved. Other incidents that are associated with the disease include a history of head injuries, depression or hypertension. The process of the brain associates itself with the plagues and tangles. For someone to be diagnosed with the disease, he or she has to be checked if the neurons and the synapses in the cerebral cortex are lost. The loss results in a condition known as the gross atrophy of the affected regions. It usually degenerates on the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe and also in some parts of the frontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus (James &Butcher, 2014). Various incidences need to be checked first before treating a person suffering from the disorder. Evidence of the causative genetic mutation from the family history or if there had been any genetic testing. Another thing that is considered is a steadily progressive and the gradual decline in cognition, and it does not have the extended plateaus. Alzheimer disease accounts for people who are between 50 % and 70% of all the cases of dementia (James &Butcher, 2014).

Options for Treatment

The treatment of the Alzheimers disease is very complex since one drug cannot possibly treat it. The approaches that are taken are helping people to maintain their mental health, managing the behavioral symptoms and slowing the symptoms of the diseases.

Maintaining the Mental Function

In the maintenance of the mental function, several medications have been approved that can be used to treat the moderate and the severe Alzheimers disease. The drugs are known as the memantine. They only regulate the neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons so that memory can be maintained, thinking and communication skills. The drug is also responsible for helping certain behavioral problems (James &Butcher, 2014). The drug, however, cannot change the process of the disease; it only contributes to suppressing the severity.

Managing the Behavior

Since the common behaviors of Alzheimers include sleeplessness, wandering, agitation, anxiety among others, scientists are now learning why the symptoms happen, and they are working on that angle to find the most efficient treatment. The treatment focuses on the behavioral symptoms which make the people suffering from Alzheimer to feel more comfortable and making things easier for them.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

They are the impairment of the growth and development of the brain or the central nervous systems. It is usually referred as the disorder of the brain function. It always affects the emotion, the learning ability, self-control and the memory that is responsible for the growth of an individual. The neurodevelopmental disorder is considered as the synonym of the autism and autism spectrum. The fact that is involved in the Neurodevelopmental disorder is such that the disorder occurs when the central nervous systems are disturbed (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). The disturbance can include developmental brain dysfunction and it is manifested as a neuropsychiatric problem or as an impaired motor function, learning, language or the non-verbal communication. The neurodevelopmental disease can be as a result of the Autism Spectrum.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASDs)

Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopment disorders that is characterized by deficits in the social communication and the interactions in the stereotypical behaviors. The neurodevelopmental disease which is Autism occurs mostly in children. There has been a report indicating that one among 88 children in the United States has been identified as suffering from ASDs. The report was conducted by the CDC (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). ASDs are often accompanied by the impairments that can last up to a lifetime. Individuals who suffer from this disorder require much parental care, social support, and social therapy. It is important for any parent to make an early diagnosis since the beginning of treatment can help the child to make significant gains in the languages and the social skills. There are different areas in a child that the disorder can target. The Autism Spectrum Disorder affects three areas of the child life which include the social interaction, communication, behaviors, and interests. The disorder can affect the childs development, such that the childs development is delayed from birth.

Behavioral Criteria

Children are the most affected by this disorder. They are faced with different behavioral symptoms whereby some children develop normally, but when they reach a certain age, they start losing their social skills, there are others who shows normal development at first and when they have enough language, they demonstrate unusual thoughts and preoccupations. Some children show delayed development right from birth. In early infancy, the children with ASD do not use their vocal sounds, and the older children find it hard to use their non-verbal behaviors to interact with each other (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). They are faced with certain behavioral characteristics like avoiding eye contact, having facial expressions, body language, and the gestures. They usually give a brief eye contact or might not give one at all.

Children with this disorder lack the interest to associate with other children. They deviate to older children or younger children than them, but they do not associate with the kids of the same age as them. They find it hard to understand other peoples emotions and feelings and they are slow to start a conversation or even taking part in them completely (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). Children with ASD will tend to repeat words or phrases that have been spoken by others, and they do not need to formulate their language or try to develop their language skills. Some of the children cannot participate in the imaginative or repeat play, and others will repeat the play continuously. They experience cognitive, learning, emotional and behavioral problems. It is reported that about 70% of children have a non-verbal IQ that ranges below 70 (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). Of these children, 50% have a non-verbal IQ that is below 50. It is believed approximately 50% of individuals with learning difficulties have got the ASD.

Incidents Rates and Causes

The causes of ASD are unknown, but it is thought that there are several complex genetic and also environmental aspects that trigger it to occur. The causes are complex, and they are believed to be as a result of genetic predisposition, environmental or unknown factors (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). Researcher claims that inherited genes from the parents could be the cause that makes the child vulnerable to ASD. Cases of ASD have been reported to run in the families, and so it is concluded that it is a genetic disorder.

It is also believed that when a child is exposed to certain environmental factors that trigger the possibility of the diseases, then the child is prone to have the illness (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). The trigger of the disease includes being born prematurely, being exposed to alcohol while in the womb or certain medication such as sodium valproate which is sometimes used to treat epilepsy in pregnancy. Although research has been done, there is no evidence connecting pollution or maternal infection with the risk of ASD.

Option for Treatment

Early treatment for the ASD and having an excellent care to the children and the individuals affected can reduce the individual probability of difficulties while they are assisted in catching up or understand the new skills in language and utilize their strengths. Working closely with the doctor or the health care is essential as it is the first step in finding the right treatment for the ASD. Treatment of ASD is different according to either the patient is a child or an adult. The treatments are done through the intervention plans (Brue & Wilmshurst, 2016). The intervention plans involve behavioral treatment, medicines or even applying both methods. Many persons suffering from the Autism have sleep disturbance, seizures, and gastrointestinal distress. When these conditions are addressed, attention is improved, learning and the related behaviors. Early interventions involve even the family working together with the professionals like a therapist. Early intensive behavioral interventions have been proven to improve learning, communication, and social skills in young children who are affected by autism.

References

Brue, A. W., & Wilmshurst, L. (2016). Essentials of intellectual disability assessment and identification.

BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 James N. Butcher, J. M. (2014). Abnormal Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, 786.

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