Free Essay Sample on Municipal Situation

Published: 2023-01-06
 Free Essay Sample on Municipal Situation
Type of paper:  Course work
Categories:  Ecology Water Pollution Social responsibility
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 1014 words
9 min read

Small Town, USA, is an industrialized city that has several industries. The city has three significant industrial users (SIU) which include a petroleum refinery, an animal rendering plant and a tanker truck washout. The industrial waste from the three factories is hazardous to the environment and as well as people in the area. Liquid waste if released to the water bodies before any treatment leads to contamination of water bodies and thus affecting the water sources for the city.

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At the moment in time, the city does not have wastewater treatment. However, since a treatment plant is in the pipeline, liquid waste is collected by tanker truck from the three industries and temporarily stored in a 300,000-gallon storage tank. The collected waste will be treated once a treatment facility is up and running. The collected waste has already undergone lab testing to determine the constituents. The following table outlines the contents of the liquid waste.

Analyte Concentration (mg/L or ppm) Local Limits (mg/L or ppm)
BOD 4200 1300
COD 6000 2400
TSS 800 160
pH 5.5 6.0-9.0
TDS 5000 200
TOC 1300 150
Cyanides 3 0.5
Phenols 15 12
Chromium (trivalent) 5 0.25
Iron 800 50
Hydrogen Sulfide 6 0.5
IPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) 1600 640

There is a need to set up a pre-treatment plant in the city that will neutralize all the waste and after that reuse the sludge for agricultural purposes. The treated waste contains beneficial nutrients to aid in the growth of crops, which in turn reduces the use of non-biodegradable fertilizers for the same purpose. The rest of the pre-treated liquid waste which meets the local limits as indicated in the table above will be released to the residential, municipal wastewater for final treatment. The proposal will outline a design for a pre-treatment plant for liquid waste in the city.

1.1 Management Considerations

For the treatment process to be a success, several scenarios of management should be put into proper considerations. To begin with is the physical treatment of industrial waste. The physical treatment process shall, therefore, involve the use of racks, screens, clarifiers, which implies sedimentation and floating, and finally, the filtration process. The process, therefore, requires recovery and disposal of stranded oil through flushing or washing with containment. On the other hand, Chemical treatment is intended to remove toxic components within the waste. The process, therefore, includes methods such as ion exchange, precipitation, neutralization, and oxidation and reduction. Also, the use of thermal methods effectively helps in the process of detoxifying various organic wastes via high-temperature incineration.

Use of biological treatment process is quite significant when it comes to various organic wastes like the ones from the petroleum industry. As an example, the land farming method is a biological treatment method used in the treatment of hazardous waste whereby a carefully operated procedure which involves mixing of the waste with the surface soil on a given suitable part of the land is used. The main aim of this particular treatment method is to allow microbes to metabolize the waste alongside nutrients.

Precisely all the above methods besides other treatment methods such as general sewage treatment techniques and regular waste treatment would, therefore, require a specified amount of money for the whole process to be a success. Therefore, given the initial capital cost of construction and equipment as $1000,000 on each, the cash budget would sufficiently be able to cater for the purchase of construction materials and each required equipment.

Once the facility is constructed, the available four staff members would hence be required to work in shifts of four hours a day in which each change would require to staff members to run the facility from 1800hrs to 17hours. The facility is hence expected to generate Return On Investment (ROI), in five years, a perfect time when all the due loan would have been fully recovered.

Physical Treatment Equipment

Aeration equipment is used to mix, circulate, and dissolve air into a liquid. Thus, use of mechanical aeration as physical treatment equipment is capable of reducing the number of chemicals that are necessarily required in the treatment process if wastewater via the provision of oxygen which is essential for the bacteria to function properly. Aeration equipment exists in two forms, namely: surface and subsurface aerators. For this particular section, we shall examine how the surface aerators function.

Surface aerators drive water from under the water's surface high up, at that point the beads fall over into the water, blending in oxygen. The planes of water break the surface with fluctuating degrees of power. There are numerous sorts of surface air circulation gadgets, including coasting aerators. At the point when these have a high siphoning rate, they can successfully blend fluids in water treatment tidal ponds and tanks. Regularly, these have low direction splashes, a component that produces high oxygen exchange rates. Other surface air circulation gadgets incorporate bubblers, wellsprings, and instigators. Coasting aerators can be utilized in applications, for example, wastewater treatment, leachate treatment, supplemental air circulation, and sequencing group reactors to discharge undesirable gases from the water. Gliding paddle wheel aerators are another sort of surface air circulation gadget. Their sharp turning edges produce robust, level blending activity and make a high oxygen exchange rate through the fog created by the oar. They can be utilized alone or in gatherings to make stream designs in oxidation trench, tidal ponds, or tanks. How well surface air circulation functions rely upon the measure of surface contact between the air and water. Since the gear sits superficially, this kind of aerator is compelling in acquainting oxygen with the top foot or so of a waterway, contingent upon the sort of spout utilized.


Alex, J., Rieger, L., & Schraa, O. (2016). Comparison of advanced fine-bubble aeration control concepts with respect to energy efficiency and robustness. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2016(9), 136-147.

AL-Ghabban, M. M., Mizzouri, N. S., Mahmood, F. R., Hassan, H. H., & Abdulrahman, K. I. (2018). Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 7(4), 139-152.

Yu, L., Han, M., & He, F. (2017). A review of treating oily wastewater. Arabian journal of chemistry, 10, S1913-S1922.

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