The study was conducted with the aim of the authors to explore various definitions of multicultural competence. This qualitative research involved a number of 99 frontline human service providers. However, the frontline human service providers had no background neither formal training regarding counselling but they played a great role when it comes to assisting or helping role. From the study, definitions of seven thematic were identified which are: client focused, resource driven. Color blindness, skills-based, self-integrated, textbook consistent, and admitting cultural difference. Besides other important area of focus during the study were the implications associated with the multicultural competence. Due the disparities in health sector of the year 2001, the United States general from the surgeons brought in light some of the serious matters concerned with multicultural competence as well as the its relation to the human service systems and the stakeholders involved in providing these services, who are; counselors, mental health counselors, social workers, and psychologists. Thus, leading to a qualitative research to be conducted to determine the multicultural training competence of Frontline Human Service Providers (FSL).
The sample population for this study were 99 participants involved in human service providing. The study was conducted in Midwestern city and it was sponsored by the county health all along with the human service department. The first sample of data were collected in the fall of the 2001 from only 34 participants in a workshop. Later in the fall of the year 2002 the remaining 65 participants’ data were also gathered. Most of those who participated in these study were women whose population was recorded the highest with 75 against 24 men only. A majority of the individuals were in the age bracket of 21 years to 65 years (Mean = 37, Standard Deviation = 12). Other statistics that were captured from the studies are 87% were European America, 7% were African American, Asian were indexed at only 2%, Latino came at 1%, multiracial and others were both at 15. From the same figures forty-one participants were identified to have attained a bachelor’s degree while 35 were already through or working towards having their master’s degree. Another 8 had gone to a 4-year college course work; 7 had high school diploma or a general equivalence diploma while 5 had fully gone through some community college. Finally only 2 were in the process or were through with their doctorate studies. Only participant did not disclose educational background. It was also indicated from the studies that quite a vast number of 80% had work experience in non-profit organizations, where they reported to have worked in various social sites such as family outreach, parental planning, community program dictatorship, wraparound, substance counseling, and other services in education.
The study explained the bridge in the multicultural counseling competence associated with the multicultural proficiency of Frontline Human Service Providers (FHSL). Out of the initially mentioned seven themes (client focused, resource driven, color blindness, skills-based, self-integrated, textbook consistent, and admitting cultural difference), only color blindness was not demonstrated in the multicultural competence. This article was very important since the since one can learn that the demographics of Americans have changed during the beginning of 21st century. Larger numbers of multicultural and diverse populations are evident. Clinical mental health and school counselors are more than ever called to serve many populations who differ in values, life experiences, and worldviews.
This paper provides general suggestions for counselor educators designing an introductory master’s levels course to foster the development of culturally and socially intentional and competent counselors for the 21st century. This article was written by ten authors committed to training ethical counselors who recognize diversity and embrace a cross-cultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people within their social and cultural contexts. The nature of this course content is by definition an integral component of an individual’s identity and self-perception, much more than other course content in the counselor education curriculum, such as assessment or psychopathy. As a result, even among highly accomplished senior faculty whose chosen specialty is multiculturalism and diversity issues, there are varying perspectives and values about what is most important in teaching a multicultural course. The authors present diverse levels of experience and expertise.
Organizations with more robust diversity climates changes in effort that reflect a long-term orientation and commitment to infusing the organization’s cultural with a multicultural perspective. This includes reflecting diversity in outreach efforts (both staff and clients). Staff accountability, resource allocation, and planning (Cox, 2001; Hyde, 2003, 2004; Inglehart, 2000; Norton & Fox, 1997). While long-range orientations toward building a diversity climate tend to yield the most robust and lasting results, more frequently organizations engage trainings and developing nondiscriminatory policies tend to result in only weak to moderate changes in organizational culture. Similar to other organizational change or development strategies, diversity initiatives seem to most sensitive to sabotage by a lack of leadership, high workload demand, staff resistance, and a failure to engage the community.
Leon D. Caldwell, Dolores D. Tarver, Derek K. Iwamoto,Sarah E. Herzberg, Patricia Cerda- Lizarraga, and Tabethah Mack (2008). Definitions of Multicultural Competence: Frontline Human Service Providers' Perspective. p 1 – 11
Kottler, J. A., & Englar-Carlson, M. (2010). Learning group leadership: An experiential approach. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. p 468
Lightburn, A., & Sessions, P. (2006). Handbook of community-based clinical practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 13
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