Essay Sample on Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and Summarization

Published: 2023-07-24
Essay Sample on Literature Search, Rapid Critical Appraisal, and Summarization
Essay type:  Argumentative essays
Categories:  Knowledge Analysis Medicine Diabetes Nursing care
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1240 words
11 min read

There are two types of research studies, which include quantitative and qualitative. The paper aims to illustrate the rapid critical checklist and the similarities and differences among the four research articles associated with my previous PICOT research questions. Critical appraisal is the procedure of systematically evaluating the result of scientific research to critique its value, trustworthiness, and relevance in a specific context. My PICOT questions are as follows (i) what are the present perceptions and opinions of clinical staff to caring for patients with obesity? (ii) What is the relationship between Alzheimer's and Diabetes Disease? I have used two quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these PICOT questions.

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My first article, knowledge, representations, attitudes, and declared practices of Physicians and nurses about Obesity in a university hospital by Torre et al., 2015, relates to PICOT question number one. The study states that many people living with obesity mostly suffer from various techniques of discrimination and stigmatization. The research used a qualitative method of study hence assessing the beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and perception of chance for interference and equipment of physicians and nurses about obesity in the Hospital of Swiss University. According to the qualitative exploration, the questionnaire comprised four different parts, which include (i) attitude to patients with obesity (ii) individual and professional features including teaching associated with obesity (iii) the understanding of existing recommendations concerning physical activity, nutrition, and handling objectives. The sample size of physicians and nurses who received the questionnaire was 3452. They were from the following departments medical imaging, surgery, anesthesia, rehabilitation and geriatrics, genetic medicine, communitarian medicine, internal medicine, clinical neurosciences, psychiatry, and pediatrics. All the participants obtained an email illustrating the research and welcoming them to follow a specific link to the online questionnaire. The findings of the study showed a minimum degree of negative attitudes to people with obesity. They emphasized the inadequate knowledge to detect obesity in children and adults and also training and confidence to deliver care for obesity patients.

The second article, Health care professional's attitudes towards female patients with obesity by Sikorski et al., 2018, also relates to the first PICOT question. The report shows that the problem of healthcare has been stated to be the primary basis of weight humiliation. The study aimed to investigate the approaches of the health care professional to obesity and overweight in Germany. The study used a qualitative method to collect and analyze data regarding the experiences and perspectives of healthcare staff. The sample size consisted of 682 professionals in the healthcare who were asked to answer a questionnaire on stigmatization approaches, work linked influence on obesity, and apparent outcomes of obesity. The assessment also included height, gender, age, and weight of all the respondents. The main question in the questionnaire was, 'I feel influenced by the weight of the patients when taking care after them somewhat fully agree or agree.' All the evaluations used ANOVA through post hoc Scheffe assessments to study the mean distinctions of the experts under examination. In conclusion, the study demonstrates limited knowledge of the causes of obesity among the samples of healthcare professionals due to inadequate inspiration to invest in modern education. The study recommended an immediate execution of a wide-ranging etiological obesity model among hospital professionals.

The third article, Diabetes Mellitus and risk of Alzheimer's Disease by Arvanitakis et al., 2004, relates to the second question. There exists a debate on the association of diabetes mellitus that may result in Alzheimer's disease (A.D). The objective of the study was to explore the connection of diabetes mellitus to the occurrence of A.D. Consequently, the researchers conducted quantitative research using information from the Religious Orders Study. All individuals who took part were catholic brothers, priests, and nuns who accepted to annual clinical assessment and brain transplant at death. The focus group constituted of more than 40 sets across the United States. 824 (97.3%) individuals completed a minimum of one follow-up. The evaluation focused on these patients who undertook a mean clinical assessment of 5.5 which is a range between two and ten. Thus, for a mean of 5.5 years, people went through an annual evaluation that comprised the clinical categorization of A.D. and comprehensive testing of cognitive operation from which they derived pre-established procedures of particular cognitive areas. Of the 824 participants in this evaluation, 127 individuals during the study period had diabetes mellitus while 91 others obtained the disease at baseline. Subsequently, during the assessment, 151 people acquired A.D, where 31 of them had diabetes mellitus. In a relative risks model accustomed to educational level, sex, and age of diabetes mellitus, patients had a 65% rise in the threat of contracting A.D. contrasted to those who had no diabetes mellitus. The finding proposes that diabetes mellitus links to A.D. risk in old age.

My fourth article Association between diabetes and causes of dementia by MNPDS et al., 2017, relates to my second question. The problem is that there exists no agreement on diabetes as a hazard aspect for Alzheimer's disease. Also, this research aimed to discover the link between A.D and diabetes in substantial autopsy research. The quantitative analysis used cross-sectional research and interview approaches. The cross-sectional research comprised of individuals aged 50 years from the Brain Study Group of the Medical University. Primarily, 1,083 people participated in the study from 2004 to 2015; however, incomplete interviews or information from neuropathological was identified in 46 deceased individuals. Thus, the last sample contained 1,037 dead. Besides, signed informed agreement acquired from the next-of-kin (NOK) of the deceased permitted brain donation and autopsy. A competent gerontologist nurse team performed a planned interview on the dead's NOK. The discussion offered information regarding socioeconomic status, demographics, and previous diagnosis of diseases. The finding using the significant sample of subjects give in to autopsy demonstrated that there existed no association between A.D and diabetes. Hence calling for further studies to clarify these questions better in the future.

The above articles consist of similarities and differences. The differences between our research in the perceptions of healthcare staff are qualitative while the study in association off A.D and diabetes mellitus is quantitative. The sample differs from all the articles and includes diverse participants. Also, the third article shows the relationship between A.D. and diabetes mellitus, while the fourth article states that there exists no association. Sections 1, 2, and 4 research was conducted in a university, whereas the third article was in a catholic set environment. However, the sample sizes of both research studies showed a decrease in participants, and no research question was used. Articles 1 and 2 show that healthcare does not possess adequate knowledge of the causes and to detect obesity in people. Sections 3 and 4 used different intervention methods, while articles 1 and 2 used questionnaires to interrogate people.


Arvanitakis. Z., Wilson. S.R., Bienias. J. L. et al. (2004). Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer's disease and decline in cognitive function.

MNPDS.M. Suemoto. C.K., Rodriguez. R.D. Farias. D.S. Silva. M.D., Leite. R.P., Ferretti-Rebustini.R.L. Pasqualucci. C.A., Filho.W.J. Grinberg. L.T., Nitrini.R (2017). Association between diabetes and causes of dementia: Evidence from a clinic pathological study.\

Sikorski C., Luppa M., Glaesmer H., Brahler E., Konig H.-H., Riedel-Heller S.G., Martin.X.E, and FarpourLambert.N.J (2018). Attitudes of health care professionals towards obese female patients.

Torre. D.B., Courvoisier. S.D., Saldarriaga. A (2015). Knowledge, attitudes, representations, and declared practices of nurses and physicians about obesity in a university hospital: training is essential.

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