Essay Sample on Literature Review for the Program

Published: 2023-01-18
Essay Sample on Literature Review for the Program
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Planning Knowledge Pregnancy Literature review
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1158 words
10 min read

The program I chose to embark on concerns the crisis of teenage pregnancy in the US and the methods to rectify it. According to Campbell and Lehenbauer (2019), the US records the highest numbers of adolescent pregnancies in developed countries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also confirms this menace. In 2017, USA reported a total number of 194 377 babies that were born to women aged 15-19 years (CDC, 2019). It is important to note that teenage pregnancy poses health and social problems to the victims and their newborn babies as well as the country's economy; thus, the issue should be dealt with accordingly (Mueller et al., 2019).

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Prevention Methods

According to Carter (2012), sexual education is critical in ensuring a decrease in the rate of teen pregnancy. More so, Carter (2012) explain that it should be introduced in the early ages of the teens to promote reproductive health awareness. Notably, knowledge about reproductive health motivates teenagers to be aware of the "safe" sexual practices that do not affect their physical and mental wellness (Carter, 2012). They learn the implication of reckless sexing, together with the effect of reproducing at an early age (Carter, 2012).

Mentorship and empowerment programs also play a part in tackling teen pregnancy. As noted by Muller and his colleagues (2019), this strategy is effective in motivating the youth to pursue both their social and economic development; instead of indulging themselves in teenage risk practices such as reckless sexual intercourses. Ricks (2016), insists that providing empowerment opportunities such as jobs and education to the young people strengthens the fight against teenage pregnancy as the perpetrators are kept occupied with meaningful courses. Mentoring can also be done through sexual and contraceptive education, especially to the kids who are already sexually active (Muller et al., 2019).

Finally, the use of contraceptives can also be termed as a useful method of eradicating teen pregnancy. In their research, Manlove, Ryann, and Franzetta (2004) concluded that it was impossible to convince teenagers to abstain from sexual relations in this digital era as they were exposed to sexual activities through the media. According to them, the mass media had evolved its content to glorifying sex through commercials, songs, and films and the youth were at a higher risk of being negatively influenced (Manlove et al., 2004). They, therefore, recommended that the use of contraceptives as family planning methods were effective in preventing unwanted or unplanned pregnancies among youth (Manlove et al., 2004).

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program

Professionals will be employed in the project to facilitate the achievement of the set objectives and goals. People who are experienced enables the effective management of the program. In this fight against teenage counseling, professional counselors will be recruited. According to the American Counselling Association (ACA) (2019), expert advice provides a relationship that empowers people to achieve mental and social wellness. Importantly, in situations where it is challenging to give guidance, professional counselors are mostly required as they are equipped with problem-solving skills (ACA, 2019).

This program will be majorly in dealing with teenagers. Khan and Horn (2019) term teenagers as the most challenging client's professionals encounter as they at their most rebellious stages to new ideologies. Therefore, experienced counselors will be suitable for the task they are equipped with skills that break the rebellious nature of their patients (ACA, 2019). Besides, professionals are efficient in observing moral conduct during their sessions. They listen to their clients with much empathy without judging which, in turn, motivates the patients to open up (ACA). Adolescents fear therapeutic sessions due to the fear of being condemned and being coerced to change (Khan and Horn, 2019). Therefore, the empathetic nature of the program's counselors will motivate the teens to adopt the safe sexual advice they give.

Determination of the Effectiveness of the Intervention.

The program will be a success if the country records minimum records of teens who are sexually active by the year 2020. Also, progress will be noted by an increase of youth who can access family planning services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, particularly those who are sexually active. Finally, the program will be satisfied when public organizations such as schools and businesses intervene to ensure that teenagers access mentorship programs to improve their lives.

Work Plan for the Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy

  • Measurement of Success
  • At least five professional counselors will be recruited to participate in the program
  • More than 20 students are attending sex education sessions
  • The successful partnership between all the schools in the community has been established.
  • Sexually active teenagers are openly getting contraceptives
  • Fewer cases of pregnancies have been reported Team Member
  • s Responsible Program Manager
  • Program Assistant
  • Timeframe for Assessing Progress January 2020
  • Data/Evaluation Teenage Pregnancy Statistics Records
  • Community health services claim records.
  • School teenage issues program data
  • Goals
  • Minimize the number of sexually active teenagers.
  • To increase the number of teenagers who have access to family planning services for those who are sexually active.
  • To increase the number of partnerships between schools and businesses which will provide students with access to mentorship and work experience. Activities/steps Evaluate and collect data on the number of health clinics, the population of teenagers, reports of teenage pregnancies
  • Establish contacts with professionals who can provide counseling and sex education
  • Form counseling groups for teenagers
  • Identify activities that would
  • motivate teenagers to attend these meetings.
  • Find businesses and organizations willing to form a partnership with schools and offer mentorship and work experience.
  • Collect data on progress

Objectives The program will ensure that by the year 2020:

  1. 400 more teenagers have access to family planning services through clinics in the community
  2. 200 more students will have mentorship and job opportunities in the community


American Counselling Association. (2019). What is Professional Counselling? Retrieved from

Campbell, C., & Lehenbauer, K., (2019). Teenage Pregnancy: Time for Change and Action. SSRN Electronic Journal. Retrieved from

Carter, D., (2012). Comprehensive sex education for teens is more effective than abstinence. The American Journal of Nursing, 112(3), 15. Retrieved from

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. (2019). Reproductive Health: Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved from

Khan, N., & Horn, R. A. (2019). What To Expect From Teenage Counseling. BetterHelp. Retrieved from

Manlove, J., Ryan, S., & Franzetta, K. (2004). Contraceptive use and consistency in US teenagers' most recent sexual relationships. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 36(6), 265-275. Retrieved from

Mueller, T., Tevendale, H., Fuller, T., House, L., Romero, L., Brittain, A., & Varanasi, B. (2017). Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Implementation of a Multicomponent, Community-Wide Approach. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(3), S9-S17. Retrieved from doc: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.11.002

Ricks, N., (2016). The Strengths Perspective: Providing Opportunities for Teen Parents and their Families to Succeed. Journal of Family Strengths, 15(1), 11. Retrieved from

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