During this period, new culture was forming in America. Manyextraordinary masterpieces were produced. Printed matter such as books, magazines and newspapers replaced oral communication. They gained the status of essential means of communication. They allowed fast, extensive and economical distribution of printed matter. Short stories raised new interest in American literature.
With these changes, preferences of the readers had to be considered. It is like they governed the working of the literary market. Poets and prose writers watched their works being treated as a commodity. A commodity had to be appealing to sell. In 1843 post offices began to charge book postage on cheap reprints. Huge economic losses were suffered by both publishers and writers. Sales were too low to make any profits. Some American Publisher had agents in London where costs were discouraging too. The transportation was too expensive. There were no international copyrights laws. Literary piracy was common reducing profits even further. Writers had no control of their work once they were published. With all the technological advancements, French and British Authoredbooks still sold more than American authored ones. Differences in costs were a major reason. Women were still being sidelined. Due to their traditionally and culturally expected roles they still had to face many societal hindrances to get their works published. They had to stand up for themselves and answer the questions raised by society in many ways.
Question six: compare and contrast narrators in The Black Cat and The Tell-Tale heart
Both stories have the theme of death and insanity being explored. In both stories the protagonists make an attempt prove their sanity. They both rationalize their downfalls. They both remain very calm and display no regrets for the killings. Both narrators loved their victims deeply. The stories are told in first person. This gives light to the mens characters. Both characters start to see and hear things after they have committed the crimes. In both stories, the narrator is unknown. When they commit the crimes they feel confident that they would not be found. Both victims are hidden within their homes.
The main difference between the two is that in The Tell-Tale Heart, a reader knows that there will be murder. He terrorizes the old man for seven nights before he kills him. I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid the eye forever. In The Black Cat, the murder is not foreshadowed. He is happy with the wife. I married early, and was happy to find in my wife a disposition not uncongenial with my own. After killing his cat, he takes in a cat that looks like the first one only that it has a white patch. The cat keeps nagging him and he decides to kill it. In the process the wife stands before himand the axe kills her instead. I aimed a blow at the animalbut this blow was arrested by the hand of my wife. Goaded, by the interference, into a rage more than demoniac, I withdrew my arm from her grasp and buried the axe into her brain. In The Tell Tale Heart, the beating of the dead mans heart is only in his mind. It is a psychological terror. In The Black Cat, there was a sound for all to hear, that from the cat. In the former, the cat gives him away while in the latter guilt make him to turn himself.
The black cat is full of insanity from the start. He decides to kill the old man simply because he has an evil eye. There is a supernatural power that drives the narrator. The narrator seeks unburden his soul before dying. The Tell-Tale Heart shows a mans desperate attempt to prove his sanity. He feels guilty for earlier deeds. So in both cases, insanity is a major theme. None of the stories is saner than the other.
Question Four: religious and economic changes between 1700 and 1865
There were many immigrants during this period. All these cultures were united behind common national interests. Puritan culture was coming to an end. Sentiments and mutual sympathy were allowed to guide moral actions rather than religion alone. These sentiments would prove worthy as they helped Americans to accept the robust population increase. Industries, agriculture and shipping were thriving. This boom saw people develop wealth, prosperity and enjoy cosmopolitan comforts. Trade linkages became stronger. There were numerous urban expansions.
All this caused farmers to look for better farmland. Religious dissensions were common. There were empirical studies that put emphasis on the stable, observable world. People started to care about their deeds. They started to care more about their neighbors and their own spiritual needs. They started to see all humans as basically good. Many yearned to completely surrender to faith in-order o enjoy the rational delight of doing so.
Over this period, the English passed several laws that hindered economic progress of America. For instance, in 1751, it passed laws that limited the growth of iron industries in American colonies. They would also impose very high taxes on the colonists to sustain military expenses in American colonies. These taxation policies led to open revolt. Writings started to spur public support for the fledgling rebellion. Newspapers took center stage in pushing for the adoption of the U.S Constitution.
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