Industrial Hygiene Essay Example

Published: 2022-05-04 17:45:52
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Case study

A total of 60 male workers from a manufacturing company were suspected to suffer from severe lung disease. I was given the task to investigate the exposures associated with the respiratory system, at this company. I collected samples to assess the concentration of airborne particulates, the distribution of particulate size, endotoxins, nitrogen oxides, workers in this company were exposed to methyl n-amyl ketene during a painting operation. Being given the task to do an evaluation, I used NIOSH Method 2553 sampling assessment method to determine airborne hazards involved in the painting operation. Being given the responsibility to do an evaluation, I used NIOSH Method 2553 sampling assessment method to identify airborne risks involved in the painting operation.

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Methods

NIOSH Method 2553 for the sampling. KETONES II FORMULAS: TABLE 1

MW: TABLE 1

METHOD: 2553, Issue 1

CAS: TABLE 1

PARTIAL EVALUATION

PROPERTIES:

OSHA: Table 1 NIOSH: Table 1 ACGIH: Table 1

THE COMPOUNDS:

2553

(1) 2-Heptanone: Methyl-n-amyl ketone (2) Methyl-3-penten-2-one

(3) Mesityl oxide: 4- Methyl-3-penten-2-one

SOLID SORBENT TUBE (Anasorb CMS, 150/75 mg) [1]

FLOW RATE:

0.01 to 0.2 L/min

VOL-MIN: -MAX:

1L 25 L

SHIPMENT:

Routine

SAMPLE STABILITY:

30 days @ 5C [1]

BLANKS:

10% of samples ACCURACY

RANGE STUDIED:

Not Determined.

BIAS:

Not Determined.

OVERALL PRECISION (O r T ):

Not Determined.

ACCURACY:

Not Determined.

Issue 1: 15 March 2003

Table 1

(4) 5-Methyl-3-heptanone: Ethyl amyl ketone (5) Camphor: 2-Camphanone, Gum Camphor

SAMPLING SAMPLER:

RTECS: TABLE 1

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE:

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, FID

ANALYTE:

Table 1

DESORPTION:

1 mL of 2% isopropanol in CS 2 with agitation [1]

INJECTION VOLUME:

1 L

TEMPERATURE -INJECTION: -DETECTOR: -COLUMN:

225C [1] 300C [1] 55C (3 min hold) to 190C (8C/min) [1]

CARRIER GAS:

Helium (4.8 mL/min) [1]

COLUMN:

Capillary, fused silica, 30-m x 0.32-mm ID; 1.00 m film cross bond trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane or equivalent [1]

CALIBRATION:

Solutions of analytes in desorption solvent

RANGE:

See Table 2 [1]

ESTIMATED LOD: See Table 2 [1] PRECISION (th r):

See Table 2 [1]

APPLICABILITY: For a 10-L air sample, the working range for 2-heptanone is 0.86 to 24.8 ppm (4.0 to 121 mg/m3 ); for 3heptanone is 0.43 to 12.9 ppm (2.0 to 60.3 mg/m3 ); for mesityl oxide is 0.22 to 6.89 ppm (0.9 to 22.6 mg/m3 ); for 5-methyl-3heptanone is 0.21 to 6.29 ppm (1.1 to 33.0 mg/m3 ); and for camphor is 0.14 to 4.84 ppm (0.9 to 30.2 mg/m3 ) [1].

INTERFERENCES:

Any compound was recording the same retention time as the analytes of interest.

OTHER METHODS: This method was developed as part of an update of NIOSH Method 1301 (Issue 2, 15 August 1994) [2] a combination of the NIOSH Methods: S10, S12, S13, S15, and S16 from the 2nd edition of the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods [3,4]. Improvements included: lower LOD/LOQ values, improved DE recovery results (at lower levels) by using Anasorb CMS and 2% IPA in CS 2, a 30-day storage stability study, and the replacement of the packed column with an Rtx-200 fused silica capillary column( Plog & Quinlan, 2015).

Calculate the sample volumes for each of the samples.The laboratory reports the front section of Sample 1 contains 5000 milligrams of methyl n-amyl ketone and the back section contains 200 milligrams of methyl n-amyl ketone, The front section of sample 2 contains 4000 milligrams of methyl n-amyl ketone and the back section contains 50 ug of methyl n-amyl ketone. Neither the front nor the back section of the blanks I supplied included any detectable levels of methyl n-amyl ketone.

Discussion

The 60 workers were diagnosed with obstructive lung disease with consistent bronchiolitis obliterans due to exposure to methyl n-amyl ketone.Methyl n-amyl ketone is a colorless gas that is highly toxic and is very clear. Occupational hazards can occur due to chronic and acute toxicity. It gets characterized by corrosive burns that lead to severe health problems. Ketones are known to be organic compounds which have a carbonyl group that is attached to a carbon atom. They are a byproduct of fatty metabolism. They are highly corrosive and reactive. They do not have specific mechanisms which they use to exert their toxic effects although some are reported to have cause irritation. Their toxicity is exceptional, once inhaled, may cause damage depending on the period of exposure. To detect inhalation of ketone the following symptoms will be noted: a headache, failure of the cardiorespiratory, nausea and vomiting.

Exposure of the gas to the eyes may irritate different extents depending on the ketone. Lacrimation might also occur. Ingestion of ketones may cause nausea and vomiting, and even ulcers. Irritation of the mouth may occur. Large amounts of ketones might cause respiratory diseases. When exposed to the skin, it might cause irritation and even skin cancer. The toxicity of ketones varies. Large concentrations of ketones in the air might cause depression of the Central Nervous System and total discomfort. Low concentrations might cause irritations. Industrial hygiene characterization of this company suggests excessive exposures as a likely etiology. Exposure to oxides of nitrogen got detected at the company.

There were also reports of acute worker exposures to spills of strongly irritating compounds to workers. The other causes of bronchiolitis include sulphur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, trichloroethylene, phosgene, ozone, and asbestos (Bohr et al., 2015). These were however not significant exposures at this plant. Ketones, when exposed to the environment, might cause hazards and be disastrous. A reaction to the atmosphere produces hydroxyl radicals which are very harmful and might lead to the death of human beings. Ketones may, however, be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Ketone might be exposed to the general population by transmission through the air, i.e., breathing the contaminated air.

Conclusion

Severe obstructive lung disease got identified in the workers. The compounds that got identified include the ketones of diacetyl, acetoin and acetic acid. Plans for environmental follow-ups are underway and also medical studies. This plans will be possible with the help and assistance of the management of the company. With that, a foundation for prevention in this company will get built. I made the following recommendations to reduce workers exposures to methyl ketone: Use of protective clothing during the painting session), limit the time workers spend in the painting rooms, use respiratory protection, use skin, and eye protection when handling paint. Also educating workers on the hazards related to exposure to painting operations. When there is an incidence of emissions from the point source, local exhaust ventilation should be applied. When a person comes into contact with ketones, he or she should wash their skin. Clothing especially those of work should be removed once they become wet with the ketone and should get replaced.

References

Patty, Clayton Bohr, 2015, Patty's Industrial hygiene and toxicology, New York, pages 34-40.

Beaulieu, H., & Buchan,R, 2017. Quantitative industrial hygiene, New York, Garland STPM Press.

Plog, B., & Quinlan, P.2015, Fundamentals of Industrial hygiene.

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