The deepwater horizon drilling rig explosion on the 20th of 2010 has a catastrophic oil and gas blowout at the Macondo prospects. The blowout happened at 1522 m depth in the northern Gulf of Mexico causing both ecosystems level injury on water and land both plants and animals were affected with the aquatic animals affected the most
Land Use Impacts of the BP Gulf Spill
Salt marshes that were flooded and later drained by salt were affected. The coastal wetlands became marshy when the deep mud and peat were covered with oil leading to the death of most plants in those salt marshes. The land use in those areas around the sea was affected as tar balls made it difficult for people to use the beaches (Beyer, Grannum, Bakke, Hodson & Collier, 2016). The shallow continental shelf, as well as the low-lying barrier islands, were also affected as the winds raised the water levels along the shores. The tides and swash med made the water waves to transport the floating oil into the land preventing the people from using the back bays and increasing the sizes of the mashed and peats on land.
The Water Quality Impacts of the BP Gulf Spill
The water quality was significantly affected by the oil spill. For example, oil spread in the deep waters was between 1100 and 1300 m depth the water quality was affected a most of the water was covered by thick sludge that formatted in the water (Beyer, Trannum, Bakke, Hodson & Collier, 2016). The formation of the thick sludge on the water surface to an increase in water temperatures. Some sea animals and sea plants died under the thick sludge leading to further contamination of the water below the sludge. Oil covered, most of the water surfaces and most aquatic animal and terrestrial animals were affected because of the depth of the blowout. Their oil-degrading microbes blossomed massively and the water surface temperatures increased significantly and the ocean currents contributed to the spread of the oil on the surface of the water. Seafood was contaminated
The Significant Points That Support the Pros and Cons of the Oil and Gas.
Beyer, Trannum, Bakke, Hodson & Collier (2016) reported that oil and gas are the foundation of the worlds renewable energy that is cheaper can provide high-density energy. Oil has also been considered as the most reliable soured of energy that is also a source of employment to millions of people across the world. Oil also contributes to economic development. Nevertheless, the cons of oil energy are that it leads to environmental degradation and pollution which can lead to the death of many plants and animals. Along the 21000km coastline, the habitat was highly affected. Most of the plants that grow along the coastline were choked by the oil spills.
Oil biodegradation leads to an increase in the population of the bacteria, yeast, as well as molds and filamentous fungi that thrived on the metabolization of the different class of compounds that were present in the oil. On the other hand, some terrestrial animals were affected especially those that depended on the water such as the seabird as the population dropped. Most of the sea bird died when the oil clouted their feathers preventing them from flying. Some 800, 000 sea birds died from hunger and dehydration. The BP oil spills interfered with the ecosystems and affected biotic and abiotic life (Without, & Laposata, 2018).
The spilled oil was toxic to many organisms. The seawater plants and animals were affected as well as the coastland land users were affected. Animals and plants experienced reduced growth, diseases, compromised reproduction and mortality as well as impaired physical health. Plants and animals that lived in the shoreline sediments, as well as all the beach sand habitats, were affected with the sea birds and sea animals dead.
Beyer, J., Trannum, H., Bakke, T., Hodson, P., & Collier, T. (2016). Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(1), 28-51. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.027
Withgott, J., & Laposata, M. (2018). Environment: The science behind the stories (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
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