Identification and Discussion of Major Dilemmas. Paper Example

Published: 2023-02-10
Identification and Discussion of Major Dilemmas. Paper Example
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Human resources Organizational behavior Business ethics Conflict management
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1480 words
13 min read

Kidder explains four dominant paradigms that show the dilemma that is faced in many companies. The first paradigm is Justice versus Mercy which shows that three significant aspects are needed in the executives of any company (Kidder, 1995). This enables them to solve any conflict that arises between employees. The managers should be fair, and practice equity as well as be even in the application of the laws that govern the company. Many are the times when compassion, love, and empathy for a specific employee exceeds the need to be fair between the conflicting parties, which bring the manager to a dilemma. Justice ensures that executives are not biased in decision making even in the employment processes hence should choose well between two people applying for the same job position in the company.

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Another paradigm is Short-term versus Long-term, where the company executives are faced with a dilemma of whether to deal with the current conflict or the future goals of the company. Many company executives and managers find it hard in the decision making of whether to perform a specific action based on its long-term effects or the short-term effects (Kidder, 1995). The managers should be knowledgeable about whether the decision they make at that time will have consequences later in life. The knowledge the managers have is an important aspect that helps them deal with the dilemma of the long term and the short-term consequences.

The third paradigm is Individual versus Community, where the manager may be faced with the dilemma of whether to support smaller groups or larger groups in the management process. Company executives usually have a dilemma of whether to honor their needs or honor the needs of the community (Kidder, 1995). They typically are faced with a dilemma of whether to make decisions that will not place them in situations that may complicate their lives or go by the policies and equity process of the company and deal with specific community problems later in life.

The final paradigm is Truth versus Loyalty wherein the resolving of conflicts, the company executives may be faced with the dilemma of whether, to be honest, and practice integrity or to check the responsibilities and commitments of a particular party as well as promises made in the past so as to favor such parties in the decision made (Kidder, 1995). Company executives are needed to be accurate, relevant, and complete so that they can make decisions based on the truth at hand and not the loyalty of individuals.

Traps in Dilemma and Decision-Making Resolution

Many unethical behaviors are faced in different companies which happen in small steps and later grow on to become very severe later. Such traps start like in corruption where company executives start taking small amounts of money for corruption purposes and slowly adopt the behavior to levels where they take vast sums of money (Hoyk & Hersey, 2009). Traps that emerge in companies include indirect responsibility where a manager can deny responsibility when they are not involved directly in a particular activity of the company. Another major trap in companies is faceless victims, where the company executives hide in the hierarchy of employment, especially in large organizations. Situations where the company is automated and emails, videoconferencing and automated prompts of voicemail are used for communication prompts the executives to fail in their communication and to address of problems between them and their employees, customers and shareholders.

Lost in the group is another major trap many company executives fall for where they hide behind groups to avoid blames when the company is faced with an unethical scandal. When the group in which the executives protect in is held responsible for specific actions, the executives do not face justice as individuals hence use the group to commit several injustices to employees and other stakeholders (Hoyk & Hersey, 2009). Competition is another trap in companies. The rivalry between companies can cause the executives to hide certain information that causes trust issues amongst them and the employees. This distrust destroys the company and leads to several dilemmas that taint the image of the executives as well as the companies they work for. The self-interest of the executives is another main trap many of them fall for. The executives keep their interests first before the interests of the company and the employees, which leads to cases of theft and misuse of funds while generating more dilemmas.

Tyranny of goals also is another trap between company executives which leads to individual executives wanting to sacrifice anything, including the careers of their coworkers to ensure they reach the top of the corporate ladder. They cheat and lie to achieve their goals leading to many different issues in the company that may lead to its fall (Hoyk & Hersey, 2009). Money is also another trap that many executives find themselves in performing many injustices to get the money they want. Conflicts of loyalty are also one trap where the executives are unable to choose whether they should be loyal to their bosses or other employees or the corporation and their families. Other traps that most executives find themselves in are self-enhancement where they perceive themselves to be better than other employees, desensitization and established impressions where the executives consider themselves to be perfect hence do not take advice or corrections from other employees. The last trap is a need for closure which makes information processing difficult due to its lack for definite answers.

Approaches and Recommendations in Dilemma Resolutions

One crucial strategy that can be used to avoid traps is for a company to adopt an ascription of responsibility scale. Here the employees would anonymously rate their managers on different levels according to the trap they involve themselves in or how they make their decisions in different situations (Kidder, 1995). The company should set aside different strategies to deal with such traps and dilemmas in their executives. A code of conduct should be established in the company to ensure that employees and managers have an idea of how they are expected to behave in the company. The code of conduct has an outline of the measures to be taken in case an employee violates the rules. Such traps and unfair decisions of dilemmas should be met by consequences such as termination of employment.

Another recommendation is that executives should lead by example. The executives and managers are the role models of employees; hence, they should professionally conduct their practices and be fair to all to ensure trustworthily and loyalty amongst every employee (Hoyk & Hersey, 2009). Executives who violate the practices of the company should be punished immediately to ensure credibility is maintained among all employees in the corporate ladder. A professional speaker should be brought to the company and advice the executives appropriately. The speaker helps in advising them on how to avoid falling for such traps and how to make their decisions wisely to avoid unnecessary dilemmas. Hiring for value is also important as the individuals employed have a history of good value practices and proper decision-making processes.

Checks and balances are excellent mitigation of self-interest and money traps for the executives. All transactions in the company should be recorded for the safety of the money and an aim to prevent the managers from practicing such behaviors. Annual audits should also be used in companies to ensure that the set procedures in the company are followed adequately and cases of theft to satisfy personal interests are reduced.

Conclusion and Next Steps

To accomplish the above recommendations, an ethics committee board should be created where nonexecutive directors will be created. The committee will ensure that the decisions made by the executive follow the guidelines of the company and adequate measures are placed to prevent executives from falling for different traps (Hoyk & Hersey, 2009). The committee can be an audit committee or an ad-hoc committee that addresses different risks and traps that executives face.A compliance officer should be employed in the company to ensure that all rules and regulations are followed to the latter. The officer should possess good listening and judgmental skills and report on the program with no fear.

All new employees should be taken through the rules of the company to ensure that they are acquitted with them. The rules should be written in simple language with direct examples for easy understanding (Kidder, 1995). Indicators of integrity performance should be developed so that other employees can vote on the ethics of the executives without fear of action so as to establish bad executives and managers and place consequences for them.

Importance to Companies

The importance of the resolution of ethical dilemmas is that they help the executives to make good decisions that improve loyalty and trust issues between employees and increase the levels of production.


Kidder, R. M. (1995). How good people make tough choices. New York: Morrow.

Hoyk, R., & Hersey, P. (2009). The ethical executive. London: Kogan Page.

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