HVAC Principles

Published: 2019-05-16 17:05:01
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This paper concentrates on identifying the technical initiatives that can improve energy efficiency in Saudi Arabian air conditioning appliances. It also identifies potential endeavors that can be used to reduce consumption of electricity, as well as the emission of CO2 in Saudi Arabia. Ideally, it is a country that is developing and aiming to better its manufacturing capacities. Saudi Arabia has been afflicted by barriers to the dissemination of efficient electrical appliances, and therefore, this feasibility study paper discusses and assesses Saudi Arabian energy consumption and electrical appliances. By identifying these barriers, as well as the culminating measures, the paper will assess and study some of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) projects. Based on the analysis that will be made, the study clarifies on feasible measures that need to be undertaken, as well as making viable suggestions towards CDM implementation. Some of the benefits that can be achieved include reducing electrical consumption used by cooling-only air conditioner appliances by 38%. This will be achieved through enforcing standards that advocate for energy efficiency, and thus, allowing for CO2 emission reductions. Even so, this research also identifies the barriers that can afflict the penetration of these energy saving appliances in the Saudi Arabian Market.

IntroductionIn various developing countries, the residential sector consumes the lowest electricity as compared to other sectors. Similarly, the same pattern has been noted in the developed countries. However, the trend is deemed to change as it is expected to increase significantly in the future primarily because of the increasing desire to raise the standard of living. For instance, in Saudi Kingdom, the present residential sectors electricity consumption is rated at 10% of the total consumption. Compared to the average figures reported in developed countries of 30%, this is quite low. Urban residents are increasingly adopting air conditioners, from 1995s 8% to 2004s 70%. On the other hand, that of refrigerators increased to 90% from 66% in the same period. Predictions show that the trend will continue to increase in future decades.

In Saudi Arabia, home appliances including refrigerators, air conditioners, and lighting fixtures are the three major appliances that consume most of the electricity. For this reason, improving them so that they consume less electricity is paramount. It is a promising endeavor, especially in the residential sector, though comprehensive measures have not been initiated yet, and thus, the low energy efficiency in home appliances.

The paper makes assessments of how to improve energy efficiency for Saudi air conditioners, which are important cooling systems. It is achieved via recommending proper energy saving standards. Also, it covers the imminent benefit of reducing CO2 emissions, which in turn, will make it possible to fabricate Certified Emission Reduction (CER) that can be merchandised in the carbon markets.

This paper assesses the effects of energy efficiency improvement of air conditioners in Saudi Arabia used for cooling by technology diffusion or proper enforcement of energy efficiency standards. It also estimates the possible reduction of CO2 emissions caused by the energy efficiency improvement, which could generate CER (certified Emission Reduction) to be sold in carbon markets.

Air conditioners have been selected for the case study because these appliances are deemed to increase, thus electricity consumption, as compared to other appliances, such as lighting and refrigerators. Also, estimating energy efficiency for Saudi Arabia can be measured against identical global air conditioners.

Energy Efficiency as applied in Air ConditionersIn the Kingdom, air conditioning systems lack optimal design that can maximize the reduction of internal appliances temperature, specifically for every Watt Hour of consumption, which is considered Sensible EER. On the other hand, the High Sensible EER is applied in environments that experience hot and dry climates. Also, oil and electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia was on the rise between 2009 and 2012, and the rate at which it increased was alarming. For instance, the total electricity sales in the country rose by 9.7%, and also by 10 % on the maximum load. As such, there has been a consistent trend over the course of last decade.

It is worth mentioning that air conditioners contribute to the largest electricity consumption, and thus, it can be deduced that it is the primary reason behind the rise of the maximum load in the entire country. Consequently, this exerts a significant pressure on electricity consumption because the distribution and generating capacity must be correlated with the peak loads. At the same instance, Saudi AC EER provisions and standards are very low, which evidences the lack of commitment as the same time, the Saudi Arabian Standards for allowable Ant C EER are low and they lack commitment.

Previous efficiency improvements have been based on tests that cycle the air conditioners. Those applied in Saudi Arabia are confined to Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). However, with the ratio being a steady state test, it does not facilitate distinguishing of air conditioners that have performance changes with respect to cycling or working with low speeds in addition to more efficiency (these are variable speed conditioners). Further, the variable speed compressors have a higher efficiency over a span of a year.in similarity, the single speed compressors, which can work periodically between on and off facilitate energy saving efficiency, because they utilize a condensate that facilitates additional cooling.

Situational Comparison between the developed and developing countriesCompared to developed countries, air conditioners energy efficiency is low in developing countries. This owes to past sluggish improvement measures and initiatives focused on energy efficiency performance for these air conditioners, specifically in the developing countries, such as Saudi Arabia. For instance, in the country, the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) standards, as well as the minimum norms have been set at two external temperatures, which are 35C for T1 and 46 C for T3. However, since there are drier places in the country, using sensible energy efficiency ("Sensible EER") ratios, which is arrived at multiplying the overall EER ratio by the Sensible Heat Ratio ("SHR"). In essence, the SHR is basically is the ratio of the sensible capacity that is achieved "in diminishing the inner temperature" to the overall capacity "which entails both the reduction load of internal temperature and the de-humidification".

Considering future trends, the expected MEPS development suggest that future air conditioners energy efficiency is deemed to increase rapidly compared to the past appliances. Furthermore, the improvement speed rated at 5.3% annually can be compared to Japans 3.7% annually. For this reason, there is a more likelihood that the energy efficiency gap will close at some time in the future.

Increasing the Sensible EER ratio at a 46C (T3) temperature will consequently diminish the expected peak load. In addition, increasing the energy efficiency ratio by a whopping 15%, specifically for air conditioners located at windows, as well as 25% for residential mini-slits can actually shrink Saudis maximum peak load by an overall 743 Megawatts. This is grounded on the postulation that the "market penetration" rate is 30% for the residential sector. In effect, the increase in efficiency will be beneficial as it will enable more than 2.10 TWh annual energy saving. The savings are also deemed to increase with the increase in population.

Estimating Reduction of CO2 Emissions and Electricity Generation by Improving Energy Efficiency of Air ConditionersFor air conditioners, more energy saving and efficiency enables the reduction of electricity generation, as well as CO2 emissions. However, evaluating this is paramount, which can be facilitated by Project Design Document (PDD) Form of the CDM project, which is aimed at improving energy efficiency, specifically for air conditioners appliances used in homes.

Estimation method of electricity generationAfter implementing the energy saving measures for air conditioners, estimating the electricity consumption reduction can actually be obtained by a simple subtraction of low CO2 emission electricity generation from that of the baseline. Ideally, the baseline case holds that electricity generation can actually be calculated using the EER outlook for air conditioners deprived of technology diffusion from the developed nations and the air conditioners stock outlook. Essentially, if the air conditioners are improved via technological diffusion, the CO2 emission case will reduce as the energy efficiency improves. From 2006 through 2020, the total electricity consumption for individual cases can be calculated using the equation below: 

Average Energy Efficiency of air conditioners outlookHowever, the air conditioners average energy efficiency is improved via replacing the non-efficient existing air conditioners, which can be achieved through fabrication of more energy efficient air conditioners appliances, as shown in Fig.2.

 From the figure, year Ys average EER is basically the EER weighted average of the stock that is carried forward from previous year, denoted Y-1 as well as the newly mounted air conditioners for the current year Y. Considering the CO2 emissions baseline case, the air conditioners are actually assumed to be developed with the current domestic technologies. On the other hand, for the low CO2 emission case, the measured EER for the air conditioners can be assumed to be enhanced through embracing the technologies that the developed countries use. Additionally, this replacement model calls for the replacement of all air conditioners that have ended their lifetime with newer and more efficient ones, thus resulting in the improvement of energy saving for the appliances in stock year after year

 

sheldon

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