|Type of paper:||Research paper|
Brief Outline of the Task
The first chapter is Introduction. This provides an analysis of the ocean and defines the coast region.
The second chapter focuses on understanding the idea behind human marine activities. It provides what constitutes these activities.
The third chapter covers the Advantages and disadvantages of human marine activities on the ecological environment of coastal areas.
The final chapter is about the conclusion
The oceans are a source of water, biological diversity, oxygen, biomass and a lot of relevant aspects of the health of human beings. Apparently, the quality of the ocean is crucial for the maintenance of the planet and the overall public health. Nonetheless, the fragile and complex changing stabilization of the coastal regions and the sea has experienced disruption from human activities in the present days. A large percentage of produced waste from human actions for the past hundred years has reached oceans, over inhospitable places and long distances. In the past years, there has been evident in the full range of changes in the marine environment. These changes are attributed to the anthropogenic activities (Hayward, Bruce, and Hugh: 272). Apparently, the responses to these transformations have impacted ecological processes, leading to the susceptibility of endangered species and the production of different diseases within the populations of humans. The changes are not limited to the state of the ocean, but they have a secure connection to the continents. They have exerted pressure on the terrestrial ecosystems' health, impacted both cultural and socioeconomic activities and have affected the public health. This trend has recently incorporated health in its definitions of environmental health. The anthropogenic operations include the destruction of the habitat, climate changes, mobilization of contaminants and sedimentation. The use of ocean environment by human beings has led to negative and extensive impacts on the ecological system where people are connected. Human activities in coastal areas including urban development, agriculture, coastal industries, aquacultures, and fisheries have led to the physical, chemical and ecological impacts that have a connection (Celliers: 481). These human activities produce chemical pollutants including nanoparticle that is known to influence marine environmental system and biodiversity.
The marine environment offers a lot of valuable benefits for human activities including economic activity and protein sources through navigation, aquaculture, and fisheries. Moreover, numerous economic benefits are realized from biomedicine, tourism, recreation activities, and culture and renewable energy sources (Kraus, Gerd, and Rabea: 79). The ocean is a representation of excellent biodiversity source and plays a crucial role in biogeochemistry and water cycle. Related human benefits from coastal areas are evident and critical to an individual's wellbeing such as increased physical activity and artistic expression. This has an effect of reducing the stress levels and increasing harmony due to the stability of the biodiversity and healthy oceans. Also, the connection between oceans health and that of the public has received a lot of concentration lately because of the individuals residing in coastal areas, mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions. In these types of areas, there is an increment in the vulnerability to environmental and social stability which develops from natural disasters involving health and ocean. In coastal areas, the sea remains a critical source of recreation, quality of life and proteins. The resident of the coastal regions has a high vulnerability to extreme events and the climate. An example is the Indonesian tsunami of 2005 which led to the death of over 175,000 individuals. Alongside the health effects of these happenings, epidemics usually happen because of the favorable conditions which are intensified by the environmental and social vulnerability of populations that are affected. Various agents transmitting infection found in marine hosts are viral, bacteria and protozoan which cause infectious diseases in people. These human activities are discussed in subsequent paragraphs.
Oceans help in the promotion of public health and wellbeing. Oceans have an essential connection with the welfare of human beings through services to the ecosystem, the discovery of biomedicine and pharmacology and cultural values. People tend to have peace when they are satisfied, and satisfaction comes from stable biodiversity and stable oceans. The services of a marine ecosystem include coast area stabilization, regulation of climate and nurtures and managing energy resources, po0llutants and natural biomedicine, recreation and tourism products. Apart from maintenance of biodiversity integrity, oceans offer beneficial effects and essentials for ensuring terrestrial ecosystems are stable to the human health and welfare. The coastal region provides a vital natural place for leisure of human beings which leads to both psychological and physical benefits. Medical evidence shows that access to natural environments has an effect of improving well-being and health, prevents the occurrence of diseases and helps in the recovery from serious illnesses. Environments of coastal areas help in the stimulation of leisure and fitness activities such as surfing, swimming, beach sports and coastal walking. These mental and physical activities aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, reduction of cancer and obesity. Moreover, leisure activities assist in the prevention of many issues of mental health including stress reduction. The oceans harbor sources of biological and chemical diversity where there are many species still in existence.
Human populations and land use
Approximately 60% of the total population of the world live near the coast, almost 100 kilometers from the shore. This translates closely to 3.5 billion individuals depending heavily on marine and coastal ecosystems, resources and habitats for building materials, food, recreational and agricultural use (Crowe, Tasman, and Christopher: 25). These people use coastal areas as dumping sites for garbage, sewage, and even toxic wastes. Apparently, this percentage is anticipated to increase because of the growing urbanization, transportation, and industrialization. This adds to the already existing pressure on non-living and living things in the coastal ocean. This section provides an analysis of the modification in land use and physical structures in the coastal zone and the expected future developments. These future happenings including land reclamation and wind-energy parks are attributed to the increment in human demography and increased utilization of coastal areas. The substantial increase in population heaps burden on coastal zone which needs proper management. The apparent global demand for coping with rising pressures gives the science community significant challenges such as providing information on possible solutions and predicting effects of various measures. The megacity growth leads to the concentration of people in coastal regions. This provides an extension to the ranges of impact it has on the marine environment such as increased disaster risks, thermal and noise pollution. Some increments in the human population are not permanent and are caused by seasonal migration. However, others have benefits such as the Mediterranean coastal zone where there are increments in people from 130 million to 230 million in the summer. This has an effect of increasing problems related to population and transportation.
Constructions and coastal industries
The development of sectors has changed, disturbed and damaged coastal ecosystems including habitats. Many crucial industrial areas are located on estuaries and in the field of ports and urban centers. Many activities from industries affect coastal areas, and they include paper mills, smelting and processing metal, building ships, oil storage, food processing and power plants. This affects other users such as marine aggregate extraction and bottom trawl fisheries (Hayward, Bruce, and Hugh: 351). Also, engineering activities from construction lead to permanent damage to habitats because of the coastal protection, land claim, dumping and disposal and extracting bottom material. The infilling of habitats has occurred for millenniums in significant inlets and estuaries around the globe. The primary influence on marine ecosystems includes the removal and disturbance of benthic organisms, damages to sites for fish spawning, altering profiles of the seabed and increasing shallow banks instability and increment in erosion. Severe erosion of beaches is a major shared problem for countries. The threat from tourism and industrial infrastructure is critical regardless of the plans by the local and regional management in decreasing the construction rates. The changes to shoreline have intensified in the past years, and sinking landmasses and rising sea threats have demanded the development of new strategies. For instance, managed retreat and water storage schemes in coastlines have been pushed for and have been regarded as necessary in the long-term handling of problems.
Ecological pollution of the marine environment is a representation of its impact on human health and biodiversity. The microbiological actions in coastal situations lead to a direct effect on human health but can also lead to loss of biodiversity, impact on tourism, recreation, and well-being. Marine pollution including inputs from nutrients, international and regional navigation by ships which load pathogens into the environment and runoffs may increase its effect in the coastal area. For instance, oceans have been recognized as the source from which vibrio cholera came from, and it led to the massive South America outbreaks. Marine top predators and coastal humans have been identified as carriers of family aeromonadaceae and vibrionaecae. These pathogens do not have any relationship with contamination because of feces. The current situation on ocean conservation is a reflection of the many human diseases which are connected to marine life. The relationship between human activities and the ocean focuses on microbial and chemical poisoning, climate change and poisoning by toxic algae of marine fish and waters. Seas are crucial in the climate as they help in storing and transporting heat around the world and their operations require humidity.
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Hayward, Bruce W., and Hugh R. Grenfell. "PROXY FORAMINIFERAL RECORD OF HUMAN IMPACT ON NEW ZEALAND'S COASTAL MARINE ENVIRONMENT." 2017.
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Kraus, Gerd, and Rabea Diekmann. "Impact of Fishing Activities on Marine Life." Handbook on Marine Environment Protection, 2017, pp. 79-96.
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