Free Paper with a Speech Example: DNA Evidence

Published: 2022-03-25 21:49:08
Free Paper with a Speech Example: DNA Evidence
Type of paper:  Speech
Categories: Forensic science Police
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 869 words
8 min read
143 views

Thesis: From criminal to civil cases, DNA evidence remains one of the most reliable forms of evidence

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INTRODUCTION

ATTENTION GETTER: In 1987 two bodies of two girls were found. Raped and murdered in Narborough, England. The police arrest Richard Buckland who only confessed to murdering. When DNA analysis was used, there was no match for either murder or rape. The police went ahead to test the 5500 men in the area. Colin Pitchfork was overheard Bragging about having fooled the authorities by testing. In his friend's place. The authorities caught up to him and tested him. It was a match. This would be the first time DNA evidence is used to convict someone.

REVEAL TOPIC: I am going to talk about DNA evidence.

CREDIBILITY STATEMENT: According to World of Forensic Science(2018) more than 30 innocent projects are going on in the United

States. These projects are relying on DNA evidence to prove the innocence of those convicted some on death row. This shows how important understanding DNA evidence has become in the modern world.

RELEVANCY STATEMENT: For those looking to pursue a career in the field of law enforcement or the law itself understanding how DNA evidence works will be compulsory. For the rest knowledge of DNA evidence could help prove your innocence if involved in a court case.

PREVIEW OF MAIN POINTS

First I will discuss how DNA testing works

Second, I will discuss other uses of genetic evidence.

Finally, I will discuss considerations when evaluating DNA evidence.

TRANSITION: Now that I have briefly introduced my topic of discussion I will now further elaborate

My main points of discussion.

BODY

How DNA testing Works

Sources of DNA samples

Biological materials are the source of DNA samples. Some of the biological matter that is used to obtain DNA samples include blood, semen, saliva, urine, bone and tissue cells. These biological materials are obtained from the objects that humans interact with on a daily bases such as clothes we wear, toothbrush we use, the bathrooms we use(Roman, 2008). The DNA sample becomes evidence when a person's DNA is found at the scene of a crime. For example in a bank robbery where the investigators find a DNA match to someone who was not among the hostages. The security agencies can determine the match by analyzing the genetic information present in the cells.

Where it is performed

DNA testing is performed in labs where the individual strands of the chromosomes can be looked at. The DNA analysis, however, cannot be conducted in any lab even if they have the required equipment. The testing needs to be in a lab that participates in the FBI's national index system. They must also have been accredited by a recognized body and the procedure carried out by a qualified professional(Roman, 2008).

Other uses of genetic evidence

Paternity tests

DNA evidence is used by parents all over the world in determining the paternity of certain individuals. There are some custody cases that have resulted in paternity cases being conducted on the children. Each person has a unique DNA code, but they this unique code has been obtained from the parents hence there is a similarity in between the genetic structure of the parent and that of the child.

Exoneration

DNA evidence has been used to determine the innocence of some people such as Richard Buckland. The accuracy of the technique has resulted in innocence projects being conducted in the United States (Conors ,1996).

Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence

Probability of a match

In the early days of the use of DNA, evidence Lawyers would argue their case by the question the credibility of the match. According to (Buckleton et al., 2016), the chances of two people having the same DNA is one in a billion people. Other factors are also considered such as the chances of them being in one place and being involved in related crimes.

Rate of laboratory error

There is certainly a higher chance of there being a laboratory error than of there being a match in DNA between different people (Thomson, Terrony & Aitken, 2003).

CONCLUSION

SUMMARY STATEMENT

The speech was able to cover;

How the use of DNA evidence works

Its other uses

Factors are taken into account when evaluating DNA evidence.

MEMORABLE CLOSING STATEMENT

In conclusion, remember Richard Buckland who was about to pay for a crime he did not commit. He admitted guilt under duress by the police. DNA evidence not only exonerated him but it also allowed the real perpetrator to be caught and justice served to the families of the deceased

References

"DNA Evidence, Cases of Exoneration." World of Forensic Science. . Retrieved February 22, 2018, from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dna-evidence-cases-exoneration

Buckleton, J. S., Bright, J. A., & Taylor, D. (Eds.). (2016). Forensic DNA evidence interpretation. CRC press.Connors, E. F. (1996). Convicted by juries, exonerated by science: Case studies in the use of DNA evidence to establish innocence after trial. DIANE Publishing.

Roman, J. (2008). The DNA field experiment: Cost-effectiveness analysis of the use of DNA in the investigation of high-volume crimes.

Thompson, W. C., Taroni, F., & Aitken, C. G. (2003). How the probability of a false positive affects the value of DNA evidence. Journal of Forensic Science, 48(1), 1-8.

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