Agnew, R. (2016). A theory of crime resistance and susceptibility. Criminology, 54(2), 181-211.
Agnew, in this article, examines the causes of crime as well as resistance to crime in relation to the three major criminology theories; strain, social learning as well as control theories. The author discusses the three theories in detail and how they relate to crime levels. This research is based on how the function of the individual's resistance and susceptibility to the events or conditions described by the social learning, control, and strain theories influence individual's involvement in the crime. The author explains that resistance and susceptibility are a function of factors that affect individual's perception and interpretation of criminogenic activities. It also involves their emotional reaction to these events or conditions as well as behavioral inclinations associated with the conditions. The findings demonstrate that with certain exceptions, these factors have been ignored in the past research and yet they contribute a lot to understanding the causes of crime. The findings also show that people with high resistance are less likely to be involved in crime or experience the criminogenic conditions to pressures. Further, people with high susceptibility are more likely to be involved in crime. The author has highlighted and explained these factors in detail including the negative perceptions, pleasures, and sensation seeking, perceived social support, conventional efficacy as well as the general crime sensitivity to the environment. This article's findings support the social structural theories of criminology such as social disorganization, social ecology and strain, control, and subcultural theories. Each of these theories explains how the social environment contributes to increased crime levels. This article integrates different social structural theories of criminology which will help me in my research to create a good theoretical background on criminology theories.
Agnew, R. (2014). Social concern and crime: Moving beyond the assumption of simple selfinterest. Criminology, 52(1), 1-32.
This article authored by Robert Agnew examines the social concern theory and how it relates to crime. The research question for this article is based on how crime theories and crime-control policies are based on the assumption that people are self-interested. Agnew describes the nature of evidence as well as the evidence for social concern. Further, the article also explains how the social factors influence the social concerns. According to the author, most of the crime control initiatives are focused on minimizing the criminogenic pursuit of interests through increasing the costs of crime. According to the author, crime is believed to result when people are unable to control the pursuit of their interests. Also, crime may result in environments where interests are achieved through crime involvement. This article found that social concerns have direct, indirect, mediating as well as conditioning impacts on crime. Further, the article also found that the social environment also significantly influence level and nature of the social concern. In an attempt to examine the relationship between self-interest and crime control initiatives, Agnew explains that if people are self-interested it is more likely that they engage in crime-related activities. This article supports the advanced criminology theory, sociological positivism, which suggests that societal factors can predispose people to crime. Agnew argues that when an individual is strongly motivated to satisfy their needs and desires, they are more motivated to engage in crime. Also, people give their interests more priority than other people's interests. According to Agnew, this can also result in crime. This article will help me in analyzing how social factors such as membership subcultures, low education levels as well as poverty can predispose people to crime.
Agnew, R. (2013). When criminal coping is likely: An extension of general strain theory. Deviant Behavior, 34(8), 653-670.
In this article, Agnew examines the general strain theory and how it relates to crime. According to the author, more strains increases the chances or likelihood of someone engaging in crime-related activities. The research question for this study is based on the factors that influence the conditioning variables and their impacts on the choice of coping strategy. The general strain theory (GST) explains that there are numerous factors that are related to crime; for instance, criminal victimization, discrimination as well as harsh parental discipline. The author found that criminal coping is likely possible under certain conditions, which Agnew has discussed in detail in the article. However, to summarize the factors, Agnew argues that criminal coping is likely achieved when an individual possesses a set of traits that together can create a strong propensity for criminal coping. Also, the individual must experience criminogenic strains, and also the individual must be in situations that suit criminal coping. While explaining the relationship between the general strain theory and coping process, the author notes that certain strains enhance the likelihood of crime. Agnew further argues that individuals tend to find solitude in crime as they try to move away from the conditions or events that they dislike (strains). This theory supports the social structure theories of advanced criminology. The strain theory is one of the social structure theories that suggest that the difference in societal social structure greatly influence the crime rate. The inequalities in the social structure opportunities result in different behavior or response in the member of the society. This article will help me in my research to explain the relationship between the general strain theory and crime.
Agnew, R., & Messner, S. F. (2015). General assessments and thresholds for chronic offending: An enriched paradigm for explaining crime. Criminology, 53(4), 571-596.
Agnew and Messner in this article examine the social-psychological factors associated with crime. The authors examine some of the contemporary crime theories such as general strain theory, rational choice theory, classic crime theories, and differential association among others. According to the authors, the contemporary crime theories tend to focus more on the variables that cause the crime. The findings of this article examine the various contemporary crime theories. The authors have explained the different contemporary crime theories and how they are related to crime. In explaining the classical theory, the authors explain that people assess the costs and benefits of crime before they chose whether to accept or reject crime-related acts. An individual is able to make a choice when the overall benefits outweigh the costs. Labeling theory, on the other hand, involves assessing the individual identity with respect to crime. The authors explain that in order to build on these theories, the contemporary theories tend to focus on the threshold that offending is perceived to become more likely. The authors have also highlighted the factors that influence the subjective assessments; for instance, the individual traits, values and beliefs, coping skills, and information or assessment provided by others. This article supports various criminology theories as discussed in the contemporary crime theories. For example, the labeling theory supports the symbolic interactionism theory. The general strain theory supports social structure theory that defines the events and conditions that people do not like. This article contains information regarding various contemporary crime theories that will be useful in my research especially when explaining the different paradigm for understanding causes of crime.
Aymer, S. R. (2016). "I can't breathe": A case study-Helping Black men cope with race-related trauma stemming from police killing and brutality. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(3-4), 367-376.
This article examines the racial discrimination and stigmatization that the minority races face in the United States. The article explains that many people like Garner, a black man who was left to die because no one was able to listen to him. The research question for this study is based on the racial discrimination and its impact on crime perception in the United States. The article explains the historical injustices that the minority groups like the black people have experienced in American despite that they are also citizens like the other races. The author relates the injustices to the enslavement that the black men experienced during the civil war and even before. However, even after the United States attained peace, the black people are still not treated with the kind of dignity and respect like the other races. The article is based on the critical race theory which examines the social injustices that black people go through despite the policies that protect human rights being available. The findings of this study demonstrate that America is where multiple injustices exist and killing is considered lawful when it concerns a particular race. The black people have used different means to get justice including the movements like the "black lives matter" that express the injustices that African Americans experience including police shooting. The author highlights the biases and social injustices as the basis of troubles in the American law enforcement institutions. The critical race theory is based on the sociological positivism theory of criminology as it highlights how the societal factors can predispose people to crime. This article will assist in my research in analyzing the societal factors and their influence on crime.
Baek, H., Losavio, M. M., & Higgins, G. E. (2016). The Impact of Low Self-Control on Online Harassment: Interaction with Opportunity. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security, and Law, 11(3), 6.
This article examines how technological advancement has affected the crime level today. The authors explain how low self-control has increased the involvement of youths in online crime-related activities such as online harassment. The research question for this study is based on the effects of low self-control in the young people on online harassment. This article explains the impact of online harassment on the youths citing that majority of the youths who have experienced online harassment find it difficult to deal with the negative consequences associated with the psychological distress. Further, the article provides a quantitative survey on the development of online harassment cases associated with the youths from 2000 to 2010. The authors estimate that the rate of online related cases of harassment has significantly increased from 6% in 2000 to 11% by 2010. The theory of this study is based on the Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory, which states that people with low self-control are impulsive, insensitive, risking, short-sighted as well as nonverbal. According to this theory, people have rational decision-making processes to explain why they engage or refrain from crime. The results of this study indicate that low self-control, opportunity, and gender factors have a great influence on online harassment. For females, the study found that only low self-control had a significant impact on online harassment. In the case of males, both low self-control and opportunity had an influence on online harassment. This theory supports the classical school of thought (theory) of criminology, which advocates for the individual free will to choose how to act or behave. The free will of decision explained by the classical school of thought is based on pain and pleasure....
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