Types of Head Injury
Head injury refers to any harm to the skull, scalp, or brain. Head injury includes skull fractures, concussions and scalp wounds. The injuries can be open or closed and range from a mild bump to a traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury refers to physical harm to the brain tissue which impairs the function of the brain either temporarily or permanently. Traumatic brain injury ranges from mild to severe. Mild injuries affect the rain and its cells temporarily while severe injuries result in bleeding, bruising and torn tissues in the brain which lead to death or long-term complications (Hawryluk & Bullock, 2016).
Influenza is an infection caused by the influenza virus that attacks the respiratory system. The virus has two prevailing types, influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is found in pigs, birds and human beings which offer a vast mass for the diversity of the virus. The virus can be a pandemic on the emergence of another virus different from influenza strains. Also, influenza has two sub-types namely HA (hemagglutinin) and (NA) neuraminidase which are two protein combinations on the viral surface. Influenza B, on the other hand, is common in humans with symptoms such as headaches, coughs, body aches, fever, and fatigue. Influenza B is divided into individual strains which are included in vaccines to protect from the strains. Transmission is by air through a sneeze or a cough by an infected person near a vulnerable person. Also, indirect transmission is through touching of the face after making contact with a virus contaminated surface (Taubenberger & Morens, 2008).
Influenza occurrence began in the middle ages with high mortality in children and the elderly due to low immune systems. Since 1700, there have been twelve pandemic cases of influenza A virus. Some of the cases include 1918, the worst pandemic with 675, 000 total deaths in the US and 50 million worldwide, 1957 with 66,000 deaths in US, 1968, the Hong Kong flu and recently in 2009, the swine flu pandemic. Influenza B is severe on young children and mild on adults. However, CDC 2017-2018 data places hospitalizations cases to 86.4% with influenza A and 13.2% with influenza B and annually, 12,000 to 56,000 deaths recording. Treatment of influenza is through antiviral treatment through three agents namely inhaled zanamivir oral oseltamivir, and intravenous (IV) peramivir (Opatowski, Baguelin & Eggo, 2018).
Earthquake as a Natural Disaster
Earthquake is the shaking of the earth due to movement of waves on and below the surface of the earth with damages being direct resulting in collapsing buildings or indirect through landslides, interruption of electricity, and ruptured water. Statistical data shows an increase in mortality deaths due to earthquakes with at least one million people have died in the recent century. Also, earthquakes mortality rates stem from structural and non-structural causes and following disasters. Structural collapses make up 75% of earthquakes deaths ("Earthquake safety," 2018).
Preparation and prevention of an earthquake include one, practicing an earthquake drill to learn how to act when an earthquake occurs. Two, having an earthquake readiness plan such as strapping water heater to wall scantling, knowing how to switch off gas and water mains, staying away from windows. Three, preparing family on taking cover, staying in contact, and surviving on their own(emergency supply kit containing candles, gloves, clothes, plastic tape, knife, tents, and a sleeping bag). Four, a government initiative in ensuring all buildings are built to resist earthquakes with solid bases and shock absorbers foundation. Five, leaving coastal areas as they are potential tsunami areas ("Earthquake safety," 2018).
Literature Review on Ebola
Ebola is a virus and aggressive pathogen which causes fatal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and other primates. Ebola has four species namely Sudan, Zaire, Ivory Coast, and Reston. With the Zaire virus causing almost 80% acute mortality cases in humans and 90% in monkeys. Ebola virus infection has an incubation period of between 2-3 weeks with initial stages symptoms being fever, malaise, and myalgia. With progression, symptoms are excess bleeding, neutrophilia, and rashes. In the final stages of Ebola progression, liver damages, diffuse bleeding, and hypotensive shocks lead to eventual death. The transmission of the virus is through mucosal surfaces, skin injuries, abrasions, direct contact with a dead body, and direct human contact with primates. In 1976, an outbreak of the virus was recorded near the Ebola river valley in Zaire, and since then, multiple cases have occurred across Africa causing at least 50 % mortality rates. According to WHO (world health organization), between 2000 and 2003, at least 125 fatal cases of Ebola have occurred in Congo (Geisbert et al., 2003).
In 2014, the declaration of Ebola as an outbreak and a public health emergency for international concern (PHEIC) was made. WHO (World Health Organization) reports 2,622 deaths with 5,335 cases on a report in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. In 2014, the Democratic Republic of Congo registered 62 confirmed cases of Ebola. However, Ebola has no cure or therapy, or vaccine thus needs to control the outbreak through collaborations and attention of nations. The response teams face challenges such as tracing contacts of affected individuals, lack of training on managing cases confirmed and suspected, distrust of communities to the teams on control and prevention, and lack of resources on new outbreak cases. Isolation and quarantine methods are first to be in use with the medical assistance of the infected following to control its spread. Third, WHO deploys research, epidemiology, surveillance, social mobilization, and infection control experts to support emergency response. Fourth, use of personal and protective equipment (PPE) was in advisement with qualified training of personnel workers and doctors and fifth, an experimental drug namely ZMapp was used by doctors which shown improvements from the virus but not directly attributed to the cure or vaccine of the virus (Cenciarelli et al., 2015).
Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is harm resulting from a violent jolt to the head or objects such as a bullet penetrating the brain. Falls, sports injuries, vehicle accidents, and violence are some of the causes of TBI. The following are susceptible to traumatic brain injury: all males of all ages, adults over 60years, newborn children and youth between 15 and 24 years. The injuries range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms include headaches, vomiting, nausea, disorientation or confused state, speech problems, dizziness, sleeping difficulty, light, and sound sensitivity, blurred vision and inability to taste or smell, anxiety and mood swings, and memory problems. Seemingly, severe symptoms include slurred speech, coma, agitation, coordination loss, persistent headache, continuous vomiting and nausea, pupil dilation, nose or ears draining clear fluids, and lack of consciousness over long periods. However, it is difficult to note the above symptoms on a child. A child with traumatic brain injury exhibits the following; seizures, depression, drowsiness, change in eating habits, persistent crying, and lack of interest in activities other children engage in (Hawryluk & Bullock, 2016).
Diagnosis through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography, treatments such as rest, pain relieve drugs, anti-seizure drugs, coma-inducing drugs, and surgery (stopping the bleeding of the brain) is taken into advice. Failure of at least 30 tests, much remains to be done in coming up with a therapeutic way to alleviate brain injury and for its clinical use. Prevention of traumatic brain injury include Use of seat belts and airbags in vehicles, No driving after drinking, regular vision checkups, installations of handrails in bathrooms and staircases, use of helmets while riding skates, bicycles or motorcycles, Securing area rugs, ensuring children do not play on balconies, and Installing window guards to avoid falling (Williams, 2018).
Cenciarelli, O., Pietropaoli, S., Malizia, A., Carestia, M., D'Amico, F., Sassolini, A., ... & Palombi, L. (2015). Ebola Virus Disease 2013-2014 Outbreak in West Africa: an Analysis of the Epidemic Spread and Response. International journal of microbiology, 2015.
Earthquake Safety. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/types-of-emergencies/earthquake.html
Hawryluk, G. W., & Bullock, M. R. (2016). Past, Present, and Future of Traumatic Brain Injury Research. Neurosurgery Clinics, 27(4), 375-396.
Opatowski, L., Baguelin, M., & Eggo, R. M. (2018). Influenza interaction with cocirculating pathogens and its impact on surveillance, pathogenesis, and epidemic profile: A key role for mathematical modeling. PLoS Pathogens, 14(2), e1006770.
Taubenberger, J. K., & Morens, D. M. (2008). The Pathology of Influenza Virus Infections. Annu. Rev. pathmechdis. Mech. Dis., 3, 499-522.
Williams, A. L. (2018). Traumatic brain injury. Physical Management for Neurological Conditions E-Book, 153.
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