Free Essay Example. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes

Published: 2023-02-22
Free Essay Example. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Business Engineering Ecology Chemistry
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 965 words
9 min read

Industrial wastes are the wastes produced by manufacturing industries that include material which has been considered to be useless during the production processes. These wastes can are categorized as either hazardous or non-hazardous.

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Liquid Effluent Management Strategies Related to Chemical Cleaning

Petroleum refinery effluent originates from in industry's primary crude oil refining. These effluents should be managed well before they are released to the environment because unmanaged effluents are hazardous. Liquid effluent management strategies include pre-treatment and advanced treatment. Pre-treatment is essential because it allows for the efficient management of the subsequent step. Pre-treatment involves the reduction of different effluents such as suspended substances and solid substances. This strategy is achieved through gravity in the separation, thanks. The next management strategy after pre-treatment is advanced treatment. The advancement stage involved the reduction of effluent contaminants level to the allowed limits for the discharge. Bioremediation is the most commonly used technique during advanced treatment. Although the biological system is capable of removing the dissolved organic substances, the recalcitrant components are not eliminated (Hussenot, 2003). This strategy also involves the process of separating oil from water, equalization, agglomeration of dispersed particles, removing the suspended organic solids, and mineralization of biological pollutants. Fluidized bioreactors are also used because they have the potential to improve the biodegradation of the contaminants before the liquid effluents are released to the environments. Bacterial activities are increased to enhance biodegradability. These two strategies are used concurrently during the cleaning operations within an oil refinery firm. These strategies are also used to ensure that the effluents released to the environment are not toxic.

The process for characterizing cake solids derived from a liquid treatment process

Establishing the properties of cake solids is an essential requirement for the characterization of cake solid. Characterization of cake solids involves the description of cake solids behavior during the treatment and disposal processes. Suitable characterization method enhances understanding and prediction of solid cake properties, which are used to classify sludge as hazardous or non-hazardous. The characterization process involves the indication of quantity and treatability. Additionally, cake solids characterization is based on the organic or mineral nature of the cake solids and hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of cake solids. The process of characterizing cake solid involves six processes, namely; densifying, stabilizing, conditioning, dehydrating, purifying, and disposal (Kacprzak, et al., 2010). The essential methods in cake solids characterization are dewatering and digestion. Dewatering or thickening helps to increase the concentration of the total cake solids to determine whether the coke solids are hazardous or non-hazardous. Further, cake solids can be classified as hazardous is they exhibit characteristics such as corrosiveness, ignitability, toxicity, and reactivity.

Liquid Effluent Management Strategies Related to Chemical Cleaning

Various strategies have been put in place to ensure that the sewage effluent release have minimal or no impacts on the environment. These strategies have been developed systems to ensure that liquid effluents related to sewer cleanout are managed well. These strategies include waste minimization, collection systems management, treatment system management, and effluent reuse. Waste minimization involves the application of the practices which are used to minimize effluent wastes. This strategy will ensure the minimization of wastes and pollutants. Contaminants and the wastes discharged are reduced. Also, waste minimization involves the management of the sewerage systems to ensure that all the infiltrations are filtered out. Collection systems management is another effluent management strategy that will include overflow minimization, minimization of odor emissions, and reduction of infiltration. This strategy will also help to avoid blockage and deposition in the sewerage system and reduce exfiltration (Hussenot, 2003). The next approach involves the management of the treatment systems. This strategy ensures that the sewerage plant meets the sewer effluent management requirements. Additionally, the purpose of this strategy is to ensure there are no or minimal overflows and odors, and removal of solid wastes to avoid effluent blockage. The final approach involves effluent reuse for commercial purposes. The effluents can be used to benefit the petrochemical facility.

The relevance of the analytical testing methods as they relate to modeling waste behaviors

Ideally, landfills take time until they are closed, reducing the chances put land into use, causing problems such as pollution. Landfills usually require large pieces of land, which limits future developments. Thus, analytical testing methods can be used to identify the chemical composition and characteristics of wastes that are deposited in the landfills. There are many analytical testing techniques or methods, but not all of them can be used in modeling waste behaviors in a landfill (Kelly, et al., 2006) Some of the ways which are relevant in modeling waste behaviors include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and auger electron spectroscopy. These analytical testing methods are relevant because they applied to various stages of waste management. For instance, the gas chromatography-mass spectrum can is used to identify unknown pollutants, solvents, and trace waste odor. Additionally, this method is also used to conduct an environmental analysis to determine the best place for landfills. Furthermore, these methods are applied in determining hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.


Industrial wastes are the wastes that have been rendered useless, and it is supposed to be discarded. These wastes can be hazardous or non-hazardous. Therefore, it is essential to use appropriate waste management techniques to manage these wastes because if they are left unmanaged, they will cause environmental pollution.


Hussenot, J. M. (2003). Emerging effluent management strategies in marine fish-culture farms located in European coastal wetlands. Aquaculture, 226(1-4), 113-128.

Kacprzak, M., Neczaj, E., Fijalkowski, K., Grobelak, A., Grosser, A., Worwag, M., & Singh, B. R. (2017). Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development. Environmental research, 156, 39-46.

Kelly, R. J., Shearer, B. D., Kim, J., Goldsmith, C. D., Hater, G. R., & Novak, J. T. (2006). Relationships between analytical methods utilized as tools in the evaluation of landfill waste stability. Waste Management, 26(12), 1349-1356.

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