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1. What is the thought to cause ulcers? Name and explain to causes.
Ulcers are identified as open sores which are developing on the inside lining of the stomach, oesophagus and the upper portion of the oesophagus. Since there exists a mucous lining coating on the digestive tract which is protecting against acid, the acid plays a corrosive role in eating away the inner surface of a digestive track hence resulting to an open painful sore.
Peptic ulcers were formerly thought to have caused by coffee consumption, spicy food and stress in general. Currently, it is very clear that sixty per cent of peptic ulcers are as a result of the bacterial infection that can be cured to some extent. On the other hand, another sixty per cent is as a result of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, Nuprin and Advil, with 20% having miscellaneous causes such as cigarette or no clear cause in existence.
Sometimes earlier, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori which are identified as (H.Pylori), was identified as one leading cause of peptic acid in the 1980s. it was identified to be causing the general inflammation of the stomach lining and cancer of the stomach in the Asian population.
2. Discuss 3 different categories of medications used to treat ulcers and explain their action in the treatment of ulcers.
Adoption of antacids
One great medication that has been in the past to offer general treatment is the adoption of antacids. Even if they are not the right drug for healing ulcer, they are identified to be neutralizing the existing acid level that is in the stomach, and thereby eliminating and relieving the erosion and the general irritation that is taking place on the ulcer sites and the stomach walls which ends to offering continuous pain relief. In managing treatment in general, antacids are provided between meals and when the one affected is going to bed. Some of the common antacids of the counter include magnesium trisilicate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate and they are orally taken in form of liquid and chewable pills.
Proton Pump Inhibitors(PPIs)
PPIs are used in the general process of suppressing gastric parietal cell that has the general responsibility for acid secretion hence promoting healing of ulcers. The general chance of PPIs suppressing gastric acid production is greater than that of Histamine-2 receptor antagonist.
In dealing with ulcers that are caused by H. pylori infection, one will be asked to be taking three or two antibiotics together with proton pump inhibitors. From a general overview, it is quite evident that such eradication therapy is benefiting both in preventing recurrence and healing of ulcers more so in handling ulcers to deal with the duodenum. Some of the antibiotics that are commonly used include clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and metronidazole.
3. Name and explain 4 life-threatening problems which can result from an ulcer that is poorly managed.
Poorly managed ulcers can cause one to bleed hence resulting in anaemia and if not managed effectively it ends up causing death. Additionally, Ulcers also causes inflammation of the stomach and the swelling can lead to the general blockage of food to pass to the digestive tract and hence making one to vomit. Some nature of ulcers increases the general risk of infections and stomach cancer.
An untreated ulcer can at one-point burn through the stomach walls hence allowing food and digestive juices to leak into the abdominal cavity. When not treated early, it will end up requiring immediate surgery.
4. Why did the clinic doctor warn the woman not to take aspirin or NSAIDS?
The woman should not take Asprin since Asprin creates irritation to the stomach and increases the level of acid production which irritates the ulcer in the long run. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDS), as per the woman who had a damaged pancreas can also lead to the general increase of stroke and heart attack. on the other hand, since the most common side effect of NSAIDs and aspirin are identified to be gastrointestinal and include Diarrhea, stomach ulcers, loss of appetite and abdominal pain it is not advisable for an individual with pancreas damage to continually depend on Aspirin and NSAIDs.
5. Explain why and how the pancreas could be damaged.
Continuing from the previous question, the women ulcer ended being worse and she ended up complaining about back pain. From a scientific perspective, a poorly managed ulcer is very dangerous and since aspirin irritates the ulcer, the ulcer could be growing so it had great chances of damaging the pancreas.
6. What lifestyle changes could prevent or treat ulcers?
It is important for one suffering from ulcers to focus on their diet and to make sure that they limit their general intake of stimulating drinks like coffee, tea and even acidic fruits. When it comes to the general spices, one is supposed to reduce the spices and make sure that they avoid, heavy and fatty meals that may end up increasing the stomach discomfort. Since stress has a direct link with ulcers, managing stress can play an important role in making sure that a peaceful state is ensured. Lastly, exercise plays help in the general proper bowel movement and to ensure the quick recovery, one should plan an exercise routine like aerobics, cycling, swimming and even be indulging in yoga.
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