Another major rhetorical strategy is ethos. Ethos, also known as ethical appeal, encompasses the credibility, character, or reliability of the author of the text. The author has ensured the presence of an ethical appeal in the text through the usage of data drawn from credible and reliable sources. For example, the industry segments analyzed in the report follow the specifications of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Besides, the chief source of the employment data used in the report is the IMPLAN model. Additionally, the industry-specific data was cross-checked against those of the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) (HIS Global, 2014, p. 8). The author uses data from verified and established sources to improve the accuracy of the data and the ultimate analysis. As Hyde and Schrag (2004) confirm, the use of credible sources to build an argument and the subsequent proper citation of the sources is one way to include ethos in a text. Additionally, an examination of the article reveals no grammar mistakes, meaning that the author proofread the entire text and ensured that all the words were correctly spelled and tables filled completely. Similarly, the neutral tone and appropriate diction contribute to the ethos in the text. The consideration of ethos in a text dispels the doubts that the audience may have, for example, as a result of many careless grammar mistakes. In this manner, the intended audience treats the text with the seriousness it deserves. The use of unreliable sources makes an audience suspect falsehood in a text and the possibility that the author has a hidden agenda. As a result, the audience may end up dismissing the text even if its premises were credible and genuine. The persuasion that comes with the consideration of ethos in a piece of work is critical of the manner in which the intended audience will treat the premises of the text.
Pathos is the final rhetorical strategy that the author has used in this text. Pathos entails the emotional appeal or the appeal to an audience’s most fundamental need (David & Edward, 2010, p. 43-66). The subject of the article is employment, which is one of the fundamental needs of a human being. By picking such a crucial topic, the author has ensured that the text touches on a critical area of concern for human beings. Besides, the text narrows down the employment issue to the minority groups and women. In digression, the contemporary world is replete with racial and gender discrimination. The U.S, where the text is set, has had its fair share of racial and gender discrimination issues. The claim that the minority groups’ rights are not adequately represented makes the issue an emotional one. Additionally, in the face of the current gender equality campaigns, the welfare of women has become not only emotive, but also a fundamental social issue. Thus, it suffices to say that by focusing on the minority groups and women, the author aimed to create an emotional appeal to the audience. The fact that the text is solely dedicated to the relatively ‘less favored’ groups in America creates a curiosity in the audience and the urge to find out what the author says about them. Similarly, the discussion of their employment creates an impression that the author is concerned about their welfare and is sensitive to their development in the face of the ongoing claims of discrimination.
Engagement with the Text (Critical Analysis)
The major area of concern in the text is the issue of ‘projection,’ especially concerning the jobs that may be created when people leave the industry. Firstly, while projecting the overall percentage of the jobs created, the author fails to point out succinctly the specific employment variables that have informed the projections. For instance, assuming that the projected figures have been informed by a specific industry labor trend that favors the minority and the women, the trend may change because of several industrial factors, some of which are unprecedented such as a sudden upset in the economy. Besides, while projecting the number of jobs that may be created when people leave the industry, the figures can never be certain, not even close. The author has not presented or attempted to examine the factors that may make people leave their jobs such as retrenchment, death, alternative employments, and retirements. While the number of people who will retire within that period can be determined, the number of those who will die is completely unpredictable. The author also admits that “to approximate job opportunities due to replacement demand in the period 2020-2030, we adjusted the BLS replacement rates for 2010-2020 to reflect a correspondingly higher retirement rate” (HIS Global, 2014, p. 17). While the author does not explain how they adjusted the replacement rate, it is predictable that it was done through extrapolation of the figures. Extrapolating the figures, especially on a positive side may result in overly exaggerated figures that may turn out to be misleading. It is noteworthy I chose a rhetorical analysis on this quantitative article as it is better suited to offer an in-depth analysis of both the data and the article. Besides, I searched for an article on black women in business "ownership" in the gas and oil industry in the U.S, but found nothing; instead, I found the "employment" article. Even so, the use of this article will be pertinent in building resources for an ‘ownership’ research project. For instance, it has presented an in-depth analysis of the industry employment trends between 2010 and 2030 providing some of the most vital statistics that could be used to inform ‘ownership’ discussion and research projects within the set period. The article has also provided a detailed discussion of all the business sectors in the Oil &Gas and the petrochemical industry. Thus, its use could assist in identifying the specific sector that women could prosper and vice versa.
In conclusion, the article has sufficiently addressed the subject through reliable statistical data and analysis. As a result, it is proven that while the increase in job opportunities in the oil and gas as well as the petrochemical industry between the year 2010 and 2030 highly favors the minority groups and women, women are set to be the least beneficiaries due to a variety of industry dynamics. Even so, most of these figures are mere projections that may contain large margins of error. Therefore, it is prudent to analyze the premises of the text further before implementing any of them.
Aristotle, Bizzel, P & Patricia, H. B. (2001). On Rhetoric. New York: Bedford.
David, M. T & Edward, S. (2010). Classical Greek Rhetorical Theory and the Disciplining of Discourse. London: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hyde, M. J & Schrag, C.O. (2004). The Ethos of Rhetoric. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.
IHS Global Inc. (2014). “Minority and Female Employment in the Oil & Gas and Petrochemical Industries.” An HIS Report, March 2014.
Plato, Bizzel, P & Herzberg, B. (2001). The Rhetorical Tradition. New York: Bedford.
Selzer, J. (2013). Rhetorical Analysis: Understanding How Texts Persuade Readers. New York: Routledge. p. 279-307.
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