The publication of this research article can be classified under the social work research as a scholarly book published in the English language. It was posted in the United States by the NASW press as a periodical (Grigsby et al., 1990). It is available online with all the rights reserved to the British library board and other contributors.
The book has been written in the English language for broad reader coverage. It has also been made available online for easy availability. Although it has been published in the United States of America all the rights are reserved for the British library board (Grigsby et al., 1990). It could have been printed in the United States, but it is distributed widely beyond this boundaries.
The book was published in 2003. A study was done and an investigation conducted between 1989 and 1990. It implies that the period of the inquiry took 12 months before it was completed(Eyrich et al.,2003). A group of nine hundred participants were selected randomly from shelters and the city streets.
Although the investigation was done between 1989 and 1990 there is no much difference with a survey done between 1991 and 2002 as the information obtained is closely related. The data can still be used in the analysis of a 2002 report on homelessness(Eyrich et al.,2003). The story was timely and served the purpose during the time because homelessness had significantly increased during this time. The primary methods used in data collection include interviews that were conducted one on one with the homeless people.
The keys terms used in this literature include:
Affiliation - this term means to be closely related to a given body, person or a group of people. It has been used in the text when on the content with theories (Eyrich et al.,2003.
Alienation- the word is defined as the separation of a person from a given set of people or conditions. It has been used to explain the different scenarios of the homeless (Eyrich et al.,2003).
Homelessness- it refers to a state where a person or a group of people do not have a permanent residence or dwelling. It has been used severally in the text as it the principal subject of discussion (Eyrich et al.,2003).
Social support network. It is an association of people who give assistance or organise for aid to people especially those who are in need(Eyrich et al.,2003). It has been used repeatedly in the text as it is the solution to the homeless people.
The key terms have been used continuously in the book to explain different concepts. They also explore the subject through giving details of the homeless people as well as relating the content with the social theories (Eyrich et al.,2003)
Main Topic or focus of the paper
The main topic is "Theories of social support in homelessness". The social problems that can be better understood by reading this article are the issue of Homelessness. It explores the study in depth by giving a clear picture of what it is and giving real-life scenarios on what the homeless people go through (Eyrich et al.,2003). The article provides information on the response given by the homeless people through interviews. It also provides an understanding of alcohol and drug abuse among the homeless people. The article explains that it is a habit that these people have adopted as a way of forgetting their issues (Eyrich et al.,2003). It demonstrates that the majority of the populations are addicts. Another social problem that can be understood from the article is that the homeless people need support from social networks and this support can be in the form of food, clothing, shelter and rehabilitation from drugs (Eyrich et al.,2003).
The article is detailed and uses primary data as well as sociology theories for a better understanding of the homelessness issue. The data collected is representative of the populations who are homeless and in the streets or temporary shelters for instance cars, unoccupied buildings, and the roads among others. It has explored the social issues that the homeless populations go through, for instance, alcohol and drug abuse.
It is both a research study and a conceptual paper. It is a research study because it utilises primary data collected by researchers through the interview from 900 respondents who were randomly selected from people living on the streets and temporary shelters (Eyrich et al.,2003). Similarly, it is a conceptual paper because the authors have used and expanded theoretical concepts. The two theories used include general alienation and replacement theories (Eyrich et al.,2003).
Both studies have been used for depth and a clear understanding of the social issue. The authors have perfectly bonded the two studies where research has brought in the reality, and conceptual study has been used to explain the theories about the situation.
- What are the significant contributors to homelessness?
- Where do homeless people leave?
- What challenges do they go through?
- What can be done to help this population?
- What are the demographics?
- Is there any support for them?
- What were the dependent and independent variable?
The questions are useful in obtaining the right information from the sample selected. They also help in tackling the critical issues that are relevant to the discussion.
Other studies and research used
According to (Anderson, 1978; Liebow, 1967; Snow & Anderson, 1987). The numbers of Homeless people have significantly increased over the years, and that homelessness issue stems from social and cultural dimensions among different people. Similarly, (Bassuk et al., 1996; Jackson-Wilson & Borgers, 1993; Letiecq, Anderson, & Koblinsky, 1998; Passera, Max, & Zozus, 1991) explore the support network that the homeless people get as compared to those who have little income and the findings indicate that the homeless have a minimal system. Analytical response
The article has recognised other authors work and it plays a critical role in giving information on various issues of concern on the subject matter (Eyrich et al., 2003). The contribution of other scholars is significant in providing comparisons and more information on the social issue. It makes the article have a rich source of information.
Narrative description of results/findings/conclusions
From the findings, homelessness was associated with a smaller family support network. Eighty per cent of the respondents stated that they do not count family for support while seventy per cent stated that they do not rely on friends (Eyrich at all, 2003). A progression in network size change is evident because of the changing family relationships. It is also perceived that there might be increased reliability on network support. The authors do not support the assumption that homeless people are socially isolated (Eyrich et al., 2003). It was also established that higher numbers of the population use drugs such as cocaine and alcohol and distorts their mental capacity.
The importance of this article in understanding the social issue is that it uses primary data as well as a theoretical concept in the explanation of homelessness. Similarly, it has used examples to elaborate on the situation. It also explains the reasons and causes of homelessness (Eyrich et al.,2003). The article has even compared the research with pats studies and gives future recommendations.
The findings are an accurate description of the situation of the homeless people. The theories are an accurate reflection of the social issue. Its primary data has been well supported by the secondary data(Eyrich et al.,2003). The limitations are well defined, and future recommendations have been well articulated. The content is well explained with relevant content information from other authors incorporated.
Two references that I think l may be interesting to read.
Grigsby, C., Baumann, D., Gregorich, S. E., & Roberts-Gray, C. (1990). Disaffiliation to entrenchment: A model for understanding homelessness. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 141-156.
The article is quite useful in comparing the homeless to the nonhomeless. It concludes that there is no much difference regarding the survival tactics of both groups. According to the information from the article both reported receiving social support.
Jackson-Wilson, A. G., & Borgers, S. B. (1993). Disaffiliation revisited: A comparison of homeless and nonhomeless women's perceptions of family of origin and social supports. Sex Roles, 28, 361-377.
The article argues that disaffiliation and re-affiliation are critical to understanding the conditions of the homeless people. It also explains the need for remedies. The authors also explore the relationship between the period that an individual has been homeless and the vulnerability. It helps in better understanding what the people who have been homeless for a long time go through.
The two articles address the issue of homelessness in different dimensions, and this gives the content a broad analysis and more ways to draw similarities and differences. It makes the literature rich and more informative.
The article has challenged preexisting ideas I had about the social problem explored by the authors because it has given me a new insight into homelessness. Initially, I thought the homeless prefer getting support from their families, but according to the article, most of the homeless people are not close to their families and the reason for lack of support from them. Similarly, I am challenged that those who have stayed in the streets or shelters for a long time do not want to see their families as they evade them because of overindulgence in drugs.
K. M., Pollio, D. E., & North, C. S. (2003). An exploration of alienation and replacement theories of social support in homelessness. Social Work Research, 27(4), 222-231.
Grigsby, C., Baumann, D., Gregorich, S. E., & Roberts-Gray, C. (1990). Disaffiliation to entrenchment: A model for understanding homelessness. Journal of Social Issues, 46(4), 141-156.
Jackson-Wilson, A. G., & Borgers, S. B. (1993). Disaffiliation revisited: A comparison of homeless and nonhomeless women's perceptions of family of origin and social supports. Sex Roles, 28(7-8), 361-377.
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