Kotter 8-step change model
Dr. Kotter is among the most renowned scholar for his past extensive research work in change management which culminated in the formulation of eight steps of change model. Kotter closely observed the organizations and leaders for four decades before coining his theory. He concluded from his observations the chances of an organization to implement change successfully were approximately 30 percent and that could account for why most of the organizations fail terribly when they are required to change. Kotter's theory was aimed at ensuring that the organization improves on their change management to maximize their chances of remaining successful. The first step of the change model entails creating a sense of urgency through creating awareness among the employees and engaging in an honest, open and persuasive dialogue on why there are certain actions that need to be implemented (Appelbaum & et al, 2012).
The second stage entails create a guiding coalition and hence the change agent need to create a team that will inspire others as their representatives for employees to participate in a constructive approach. Create a vision for the third stage where also employees need to be actively involved to own up the vision and enrich it with more ideas. Communicate which is considered an integral part of realizing change by ensuring that the vision is clearly conceptualized, internalized and repeatedly emphasized every time there is dialogue with the employees. Remove obstacles so that the vision is never undermined and this also encourage the employees to soldier on undeterred since there is a sign of commitment from the change agent. The vision can be too large hence the need to create short-term wins as the sixth stage. Success motivates employees and when short-term measurable goals are realized it acts as a springboard energy to propel the employees to the next stage. When those short-term goals are realized there is a need to consolidate the gains by cementing it with an organizational culture. It must be a slow process so that the new behaviors learned can be internalized and become institutionalized (Kotter, 2010). The final step is anchoring the changes which entail matching the organizational values with the new behaviors. It must also entail conducting regular performance evaluations and communicating regularly on changes
Lewin's change theory
Kurt Lewin through extensive research also simplified his change model into three important stages namely unfreeze, change and refreeze. The first stage of unfreezing involves creating awareness among the employees that if the organization continue doing the same things there may be lost opportunities or threat to their livelihoods. This stage is pre-occupied with communicating the necessity to envision and implement the change for the mutual benefit of the organization and the employees. Lewin observes that this stage is quite challenging since people will always resist change due to uncertainty (Hussain & et al 2016)
The second stage is changing which comes after the employees have understood and agreed on the need to change. This is the stage of implementation of desired changes and is characterized by high levels of transitions made as change becomes a reality. Most of the employees might have a hard time coping with the new changes. The changing stage is characterized by difficulties hence the change agents must maintain regular communication for people to learn the new thought processes and behaviors. Some of the important activities at this point include motivation, communication, and education for the employees. The final stage is known as refreezing which entails solidifying and stabilizing the new thinking and behaviors acquired. Lewin found that it is important to reinforce the new change to avoid the risk of employees going back to their complacent behaviors (Kaminski, 2011). It requires to institutionalize that change, forming an organizational culture that supports it and cementing the behavior.
McKinsey 7s model
Developed in 1980 this model is widely used in current organization worldwide for planning and also as a tool for managing tool. The main arguments from the research work of Mckinsey are that there are seven important interconnected elements in an organization which require to be properly aligned. They include skills, staff, shared values, style, strategy, structure, and style which require to be properly aligned for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of the organization (Singh, 2013). The major principle here is that the seven S are interconnected in a web and change in one aspect requires the shift in all the other seven to realize success. The strategy as one component of the model is the path planned which the organization wants to follow to realize its goals and visions. , on the other hand, is the hierarchy of the organization showing who is responsible where and answerable to who. Systems are procedures and processes within the organization.
Using this tool is not easy and requires the great understanding of the seven components to locate where there might where there is no good alignment. The weaknesses, inconsistencies or gaps identified should be the genesis of initiating change. Then the next step is deciding the design of the organizational design that the change agent aspires to have. The third stage involves setting the stage to align areas that have problems such as shared values, skills and strategy. Stage four is making the actual changes while the fifth and final stage entails to review continuously. The organizations are dynamic caused by many factors hence the need to keep re-evaluating the processes to ensure whether everything is well aligned (Ravanfar, 2015).
Currently, John P. Kotter is a global widely renowned speaker when it comes to the topics of leadership and change. Kotter is well-thought-out to be the premier voice in relation to the manner by which organizations ought to effectively attain successful transformation. It is no doubt that the vast experience, as well as the knowledge on the successful change of the Kotter time and again, have been unchallenged. Most recently Kotter took part in the creation as well as co-founding of the Kotter international, which is the leadership organization that assists organization all over the globe in the development of the practical skills as well methodologies of the execution strategies necessary in the facilitation of leading changes in the modern large-scale and complex business environment. In reflecting the application of the 8 -step process of leading change in an organization, Kotter has updated the process after undertaking an extensive research. Below are accelerated steps that illustrate the changes he revised in making his steps for the change be well applied in the current business environment (Hayes, 2018).
Hayes (2018), notes that in the current research Kotter advocates that instead of responding to change in rigid as well as sequential step by step, it is advisable for organizations to runs the step continuously as well as concurrently. Instead of driving change using small, powerful grip the current research calls for forming a large volunteer Amy from up to down as well as across the organization functioning as an engine of change. Rather than functioning within the hierarchy of the traditional, in the current research the theorist advocates for functioning flexibly in a network as well as agilely outside although in conjunction with the traditional hierarchy. It is equally imperative to note that under the current research Kotter encourages organizations to work as if strategy ought to be a force of dynamic thereby continuously looking for opportunities, identify initiatives that can be capitalized hence implementing them in an efficient as well as quick manner. Thus in all aspects organization apply Kotter's research and knowledge in amplifying own potential as well as overcoming potential barriers that lead to complex change indispensable in the uncertain rapid changes contemporaneous world of the business environment.
In relation to this theorist, it is worth to note that the status quo remains to be the product of various force in the social environment governing behaviors of individuals at a given period in consideration. As such casual relation ought to be analyzed. The reality of the matter is that change initiatives ought to have the status quo destabilized, Implement the alternatives besides reestablishing the business environment. In all aspect and in view of the related current researches, it is imperative that the process of implementation entails researching as well as performing the learning function. In all aspects, application of change strategy according to Kurt Lewin demands the creation of appropriate conditions that are vital for sustained changes to take place via grouping process of trial and error up to when there is an appropriate fit. The truth of the matter is that Kurt Lewin change management model is applied by the various organization in the contemporary business in all the three stages of unfreezing, change as well as refreeze. Lewin perceived the change as being similar to changing the shape of the block of Ice. Thus if any business wants to be different it has to break down from the old processes (that is melting the ice), place the water in required shape (that is implementing the change) and eventually refreeze the water in a new shape (that is solidifying the fresh processes as well as behaviors) (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016).
In various interactive presentations particularly in the series of the media contexts, the directors of the McKinsey occasionally takes into perspectives of the current applications in relation to the framework of 7-s acquaint with in addressing the critical role of coordination instead of structure in an organizational setup. When this 7-s framework was introduced in the late 1970-s, they were watershed in the reflection of the organization's effectiveness. At that time the former focus on the manager was in relation to the organization as being a structure. Following the growth as well as size and complexity, the current research of these theorist does not entail structure but coordination. In the book search for excellence by one of the former consultants, Thomas and Robert Waterman undertakes that the framework lays down the constellation of the factors that interrelate whose impact entail influencing the ability of an organization to change. Lack of the hierarchy among the factors Imply key to progress in given part of the organization ought to be difficult in absence of others working. The truth of the matter is that 7-s stands to be a useful tool in comprehending the organization's complexity. In the current business operations, the reality of the matter is that structure alone cannot be considered to being an organization. The 7-s framework demonstrates the multiplicity of elements that are interconnectedness in helping organizations to define their ability to change in reflection of the current rapid changes in the present day world of business (Hayes, 2018).
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