Annotated Bibliography Example: Effects of Environmental Factors on Women's Reproductive Health in the US

Published: 2022-09-08
Annotated Bibliography Example: Effects of Environmental Factors on Women's Reproductive Health in the US
Type of paper:  Annotated bibliography
Categories:  Women Pregnancy
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1628 words
14 min read

Mu, F., Rich-Edwards, J., Rimm, E. B., Spiegelman, D., Forman, J. P., & Missmer, S. A. (2017). Association between Endometriosis and Hypercholesterolemia or Hypertension. Hypertension, 70(1), 59-65. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.117.09056.

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Endometriosis is a prevalent gynecological syndrome which affects millions of women of reproductive stage across the world today. According to this article, it is depicted as the manifestation of endometrium-like tissue that grows around the uterus, particularly on the ovaries and pelvic peritoneum. This work provides an understanding of this condition as well as identifying its association with hypertension. The article also contains the signs and symptoms of endometriosis which include the dysmenorrhea, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain.

This study will be helpful in the literature review since it provides essential information about the endometriosis as well as analyzing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. The research suggests that there is a need for greater awareness of endometriosis disease and a greater risk for hypercholesterolemia among women with endometriosis.

Peterson, C. M., Johnstone, E. B., Hammoud, A. O., Stanford, J. B., Varner, M. W., Kennedy, A., . . Louis, G. M. (2013). Risk factors associated with endometriosis: Importance of study population for characterizing disease in the ENDO Study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 208(6), 451-462. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.02.040.

The authors in this article have come together to ascertain the risk factors associated with endometriosis and their prevalence among the study populations. Multiple analyses conducted discovered barrenness to be a regular risk aspect that is caused by endometriosis in both population and operative cohorts. Moreover, the study focuses on identifying the possible evidence for sterility being recognized as the main risk element for endometriosis. They entail a multifactorial etiology for endometriosis which is depicted in a different way for multiple stages of symptoms, decreased levels of parity and gravidity, insensitive MRI among others.

This study will play a vital role in the literature review because it identifies the unique risk factors caused by this disorder as well as assessing the efficacy of different interventions. Thus, future endometriosis studies will use this information to determine the suitable metrics to address infertility and delayed pregnancy among other risk elements.

Roy, D., Morgan, M., Yoo, C., Deoraj, A., Roy, S., Yadav, V......., Doke, M. (2015). Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic, and Genomic Approach to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(10), 25285-25322. Doi: 10.3390/ijms161025285.

This work aims at presenting an ecological epidemiologic, bioinformatics and genomic approach to ascertain the health effects such as the endometriosis or breast cancer and other diseases. The study conducted human exposure modeling and measurement to determine the environmental chemicals such as bisphenols (BPs), phthalates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which causes cancer among women. Consequently, the meta-analysis established that PCBs exposure and phthalates posed a higher rate of contracting breast cancer and endometriosis. Women diagnosed with endometriosis are at a higher risk of contracting specific forms of cancer for instance, ovarian and breast cancer.

This study will be critical in literature review since it presents an integrative methodology to expound the effects of EdDCs (PCBs, BPA, and phthalates) that are responsible for the formation of breast cancer and endometriosis through the use of molecular signatures and epidemiological evidence.

Mu, F., Edwards, J.R, Rimm, E.B, Spiegelman, D, & Missmer S.A. (2016). Endometriosis and risk of coronary heart disease. AHA Journals, 257-264. DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.115.002224.

Endometriosis has been connected to systemic chronic infection, an atherogenic lipid profile and severe oxidative trauma which increases the risk of women contracting coronary heart disease. As a consequence, the authors seek to extend our knowledge on the link between endometriosis and risk coronary heart disorder, particularly among younger women. The focus around the association of endometriosis and CHD have confirmed that the most affected people are the young girls as opposed to older women who have are at the late 50s. The study explains that this association tends to have significant clinical and public health implications among older women since women with endometriosis start to weaken with age because of the menopause stage.

This study will be helpful for the literature review since it provides necessary information that can be used for clinical management of this disorder. Nonetheless, the study provides risk awareness endometriosis as well as the need for CHD screening healthy lifestyle.

Sharma, R., Biedenharn, K. R., Fedor, J. M., & Agarwal, A. (2013). Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: Taking control of your fertility. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 11(1), 66. Doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-11-66.

This study indicates that nearly 10 to 15% of couples are suffering from the issue of infertility. This work focuses on depicting the lifestyle elements that cause the increase of sterility which has created a substantial level of interest. The authors point out that the lifestyle elements are the adaptable conducts and ways of life that can significantly influence the general health and well-being of an individual including productiveness. Some of the lifestyle aspects discussed in the article involve the illicit drug addiction, alcohol, cigarette, and caffeine consumption which can adversely influence fertility hence the need for taking preventive measures.

This work will be essential to the literature review since it has different lifestyle elements and places infertility in perspective for the couple by shedding light on both men and women. The authors in this work aim to ascertain the roles that lifestyle elements play in identifying the reproduction condition of an individual.

Krieg. S.A, Shahine L.K & Lathi R.B (2016). Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and miscarriage. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 941-946.

This study by Kriet et al. seeks to point out that the environmental exposure or toxins can influence the growth of the embryo as well as posing the danger of altering the endometrium of pregnancy. As a consequence, this work aim is to evaluate the current substantiation on the effects of environmental contaminants in reproduction. The article holds the notion that, the early loss of a pregnancy is primarily attributed by the environmental exposure such as the endocrine-disrupting chemicals which are likely to destroy endogenous hormone action hence women of procreative age should be cautious in exposure to the endocrine disruptors.

This work will be significant in the literature review because it focuses on the environmental contaminants which are believed to cause spontaneous miscarriage. The authors in this work have extensively provided vital information about the endocrine disruptors which will help women to maintain a pregnancy.

Augoulea. A, Alexandrou. A, Creasta. M, Vrachnis. N, Lambrinoudaki. I. (2012). Pathogenesis of endometriosis: the role of genetics, inflammation and oxidative stress. Arch Gynecol obstet. 286, 99-103. DOI 10.1007/s00404-012-2357-8

Pathogenesis of endometriosis can result from three factors including inflammation, genetics and oxidative stress. Chronic inflammation brings about endometriosis in women being related to the increased inflammatory activity. Environmentally, some toxins like dioxin generate inflammatory-endometrial response inducing endometriosis. Inadequate fibrin matrix stimulates the development of early endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Oxidative stress consequently leads to endometriosis where a disruption in production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense stimulates this condition. High oxidation stress can result in endometriosis which comes about when excess reactive oxygen species are produced. The disease being dependent on estrogen suggests that genes can induce it through them being involved with malignant transformation, steroid response, and inflammation. Endometriosis according to this study can cause ovarian cancer.

The article will be useful in literature review due to it pointing out how genetic variation, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress can result in the pathogenesis of endometriosis that can lead to unexplained infertility. The writers have issued ways to reduce the three factors in women who have endometriosis to ease in their treatment.

Soave. I, Caserta. D, Wenger. J-M, Dessole. S, Perino. A, Marci. R. (2015). Environment and Endometriosis: a toxic relationship. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 19(11), 1964-1972.

The study seeks to review the presence of dioxin and all the chemicals compounds in the environment when exposed to human and animal body induce the endometriosis condition. The most natural and human-made chemicals inclusive of dioxin do negatively affect human. The authors statistically proved how infants and fetuses exposure to dioxin chemicals and in puberty during menstruation could allow development of endometrial tissue within the peritoneal cavity. They are mostly caused by dioxin-like chemicals exposure to the human body majorly through industrialization processes like the waste dumping of the chemicals processed.

This study will be beneficial to literature review as it describes the relationship between dioxin-like chemicals in the environment to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. It also further seeks to warn humans in being careful with their exposure to this chemical and how they dispose and handle chemicals in industrialized countries.

Vabre. P, Gatimel. N, Moreau. J, Gayrard. V, Picard-Hagen. N, Parinaud. J, Leandri. R.D. (2017). Environmental pollutants, a possible etiology for premature ovarian insufficiency: a narrative review of animal and human data. Environmental health.16, 37. DOI 10.1186/s12940-017-0242-4

Environmental pollutants might be a cause of premature ovarian sufficiency according to this study. From the many published studies reviews and analyzed in this particular study, the mammals especially humans might have ovarian dysfunction due to environmental causes like tobacco, pesticides, POI Phthalates, and bisphenol. A. Humans coming into contact with phthalates in various ways like fresh paint air and plastics since it is used in manufacturing them. They do cause etiology for premature ovarian insufficiency in both humans and animals. Active cigarette smoking induces late ability to give birth or rather infertility in women.

The study is critical to the literature review since it brings out what environmental pollutants negatively affect the human and animal reproductive system and how they cause ovarian insufficiency and further infertility in women. It also warns on bad habits that can be prevented to avoid the condition like using plastic bags mostly in carrying hot foods and excessive smoking.

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Annotated Bibliography Example: Effects of Environmental Factors on Women's Reproductive Health in the US. (2022, Sep 08). Retrieved from

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