|Essay type:||Analytical essays|
|Categories:||Internet Software Cyber security Essays by wordcount|
In this paper, a detailed research is carried out to provide information relating to the internet of things, cryptography, asymmetric cryptography, and prime numbers. In the introduction section, the paper provides a definition of terms and a summary of the paper. Internet of Things (IoT) involves the interconnection of devices, sharing data, and making automatic decisions and actions. IoT helps various sectors such as health, transport, security, and government agencies to make prompt decisions. The paper also provides an analysis of cryptography, application, and case studies. It also compares symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. It discusses the value of the encryption algorithm and the challenges in the sector. The paper also discusses prime numbers and their use in providing internet security and the future developments expected in developing stronger encryption keys. It is important to note that the critical part of the paper is on IoT and the internet security derived from the available literature.
Key Words: Asymmetric cryptography, cryptography, Internet of Things, prime numbers.
The world is changing fast with the advancing technology that helps carry out multiple tasks. Technology also connects various devices, share data, and make automatic decisions and actions . The connection of devices triggers the need for security to ensure hackers do not steal away data. IoT is one of the technologies that help organizations to carry out tasks with little human intervention, at a fast speed and less cost. According to  various sectors have adopted IoT including agriculture, banking, hospitality, and automobile industry, but they still face a challenge of internet security. Researchers acknowledge that different sectors require security systems to prevent the increased risk of hackers . Cryptography provides the necessary technology including symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithm. Prime numbers are also essential to ensure hackers can hardly decode information. Although given sufficient time, energy, and processing power it would be easy to decrypt codes, advanced technologies continue to make it difficult to unlock the encryptions. Organizations should continue to advance their interconnection with various devices and systems and improve their security systems to prevent data loss. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the IoT, the value of various internet security technologies including cryptography, AES, prime numbers, and symmetric and asymmetric encryption and how they provide internet security.
Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of things is a system of interrelated computers, digital as well as mechanical devices with special identifiers plus the capability to transfer information across network systems without any human-to-human or human-to-computer connectivity . It comprises devices such as sensors, wearables, and smartphones that are connected. The term was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 while he was working at Proctor & Gamble . The concept has been gaining momentum in global companies such as Google and superpowers including China and the USA . In 2010, Google introduced a strategy of mapping the physical world while China indicated that IoT as part of its strategic plan. Researchers estimate that the IoT is worth approximately $9 billion in 2020 . The growth shows that the future is bright since more sectors including transport, health, agriculture, government, and human resource are adopting the technology . Others including consumer services and emergency departments continue to adopt the concept in their supply chain.
Automation of the interconnected devices helps collect essential data and take action. The interconnectedness of the devices to share data across a network helps organizations in various ways . One of the benefits is that sensors are installed in the production chain in the industry to promote efficiency and reduce human involvement in the production process . A study by  shows that 35 percent of the manufacturers in the United States have embraced sensors to increase production, efficiency, and eliminate waste.
The connection of the devices helps organizations to collect important data. Analysis of the data helps companies to identify wastage and opportunities for change to spur performance . Quality data helps companies to make appropriate decisions that will change their model of production. For example, United Parcel Service (UPS) integrated a system that would help drivers to identify the most fuel-efficient route. The technology has helped the business to save over 1.5 million gallons of fuel for every 10,000 courses. On-Road Integrated Optimization and Navigation (ORION) system thus helps the business to remain competitive and profitable in the market.
Internet of Things helps organizations to adhere to stipulations of the government on the safety and emergency preparedness . The technology helps them to collect data to identify the risky areas that can cause harm to their employees or their facility. The interconnectedness of the devices helps companies to collect massive data that human beings cannot gather with ease . For example, en-Gauge helps companies to monitor and track their emergency and safety equipment . It helps companies to know if the tools are ready for use at any time of an emergency.
Efficiency and Safety
Companies such as Airbus are embracing the technology in their maintenance, repair, and overhaul. The purpose of the system is to transfer packets of data as the fleet of planes travel across various airports . IOT will help the company to reduce the cost of maintenance, repair, and overhaul. Additionally, the transport system involves systems such as advanced driver assistance, traffic routing, tracking services, and fleet management . The interconnectedness requires cellular devices operating over a network to support the sharing of data, calls, and video sharing.
Companies adopt IoT in various industries to promote efficiency in their operations. John Deere is one of the companies utilizing IoT to help farmers maximize their output and minimize losses. The strategy involves using sensors to detect soil moisture to determine the level of irrigation . Other customized sensors are installed in harvesting machines to reduce the workload and cost of harvesting. The agricultural sector is also embracing a technology called the silent herdsman by BT Group. The role of the sensor is to monitor the health of animals, indicate the amount of milk they have produced, the time of giving birth, and fertility cycle . IOT thus helps farmers to improve their production and safety of the products and animals.
The healthcare sector is embracing IoT to reap the benefits of proactively responding to treatment and preventing adverse outcomes . They also focus on integrating the technology in existing machines such as wheelchairs to increase the comfort and safety of patients . Some of the technologies in healthcare include smart continuous glucose monitoring, applications to monitor depression, connected inhalers, coagulation testing, and ingestible sensors.
Future of IoT
Millions of companies today across the globe are using various technologies to improve production and efficiency. The interconnectedness of devices will increase in the future in various sectors . They include manufacturing, freight, smart homes, and asset management. Companies will also increase their expenditure on installing and advancing the technologies they utilize to execute various tasks. Statistics indicate that since the introduction of IoT in 1999, it has spread across various sectors offering various benefits . Researchers estimate that in the future, the technology will improve due to integration with artificial intelligence .
The future of IoT is essential in the automobile industry both locally and globally. Manufacturers of driverless cars, such as Tesla Inc., are utilizing IoT to make sure the cars can maneuver the road safely . The interconnectedness requires a driverless car to receive information about the condition on the road, the proximity to other cars, people, and objects. The interconnection allows the car to also respond to the street lights and bumps, diversions corners, and changing of lanes . All the tasks can be carried out using sensors that receive tons of data and make the appropriate decisions . For example, automatic cars will brake when they get near another car or object without any human intervention.
Possibilities of IoT
Individuals and companies are striving to adopt IoT to enjoy the diverse benefits it offers. According to IoT experts, technology enables people to enjoy life using smart solutions . One of the possibilities is to enhance life at home. Using IoT a smart fridge can send an order to the supermarket for restocking and alert the owner with a message. When then alarm clock rings to wake up a person, it can send a signal to a smart shower or geyser to heat the water at a preferred temperature . Upon completing to shower, the system can send an alert to the coffee maker to brew a hot beverage to the required standards. Once the coffee is ready, IoT can alert other devices and gadgets to switch off in readiness of the person heading for the office. It will also automatically open the gate or garage. Another possibility is that when the vehicle is approaching home, it will alert the gate open automatically and switch on the best television, radio, or play the best music playlist . The purpose is to make the homeowner experience a warm welcome at home. The possibilities can also revolutionize the manufacturing process leading to better efficiency of production and less cost . Therefore, organizations and individuals can experience great benefits upon embracing IoT.
The possibilities of IoT raise questions on the value and demerits of the technology. In the case scenario of a smart home, the system will end up making the owner a ‘slave’. They will be dependent on the technology for accomplishing even the smallest tasks . Another important challenge is if a fridge can send an order to the supermarket, there is a possibility of sharing the wrong information. if the system malfunctions, it will lead to exposure of critical data. When the information is shared online, people can track the movement of an individual, their expenditure, and use the secrets against them . Additionally, when IoT prompts a person with actions such as selecting the favorite channel or dictating the time they should be at home, it will eliminate the ability to control life and express independence . In the long run, it will also eliminate the ability to be creative or proactive in tackling challenges.
Challenges of IoT
Companies are struggling with various challenges associated with IoT. One of the major problems is the ever-changing customers’ tastes and preferences. According to research by , 57 percent of the customers are looking forward to work or shop from a company that is forward-thinking. The clients are also ready to switch brands if their expectations are not met. Therefore, the company strives to meet the demands of the clients by providing the interconnection of devices that will ease their shopping experience and promote peace of mind about the safety of their data.
Organizations are striving to utilize the huge dataflow that they receive from various sources. The challenge occurs since some of the data is not actionable. The process of separating the relevant and less important information may take time . The delay may lead to a slow update of the IoT hardware.
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