Citrus juice is available and highly consumed in the United States and other countries across the world. The fruits have long been regarded as part of the tasty and nutritious diet with the most preferred flavors globally (Staudte, Sigusch and Glockmann 223). Citrus juice is a reliable source of vitamin C, and like other foods, it comprises of essential nutrients such as glycaemic, non-glycemic carbohydrates, potassium, folate, phosphorus, sugar, riboflavin, magnesium, niacin, thiamin, fiber, and different phytochemicals (Staudte, Sigusch and Glockmann 213). These nutrients in citrus fruits play a role in reducing the risks that are associated with multiple chronic diseases. The consumption of orange juice is linked to nutrient adequacy as well as diet quality that help in minimizing the risks that are associated with overweight in children. A cross-sectional study using stratified, multistage, probability sample based on secondary data analysis from NHANES 2003 to 2006; examined diet quality concluded that the consumption of 100% orange juice should be encouraged since it helps individuals to attain the USDA recommendations for the fruit diet (Lv et al. 18).
The intake of the orange juice is also associated with high energy intake, high serum Vitamin C, Red Blood cells and lowers LDL-C. However, as much as citrus juice play at maneating the nutrient adequacy, it is also argued that there is an association with the BMI, body fats and the odds for obesity among young children but not for the adult. In improving the diet content, citric acid has the vital nutrients that help in replacing the nutrients that are undertaken in the body (Wang et al. 2220). For instance, potassium, folate, magnesium, iron, flavonoids, and calcium play a critical role in enhancing the body health (Anthropometric article) (Rampersaud & Valim 132). Along with the high nutrients and quality diet, citrus juice s also associated with the anthropometric measured. In a cross-sectional study with 12789 consumers and non-consumers of the grape juice, it was concluded that the quality of diet among the consumers was higher due to the intakes of fiber, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C. It is further linked to lower body weight, waist circumference, BMI, triglycerides, CRP, and higher HDL cholesterol among women (Murphy, Barraj and Rampersaud 34-45).
The low-grade inflammatory status is linked between the adiposity as well as the risks of chronic disorder like the metabolic syndrome. Citrus juice has the anti-inflammatory properties that are favorable for the molecular and the metabolic effects. However, according to studies, citrus acid can mediate the inflammatory response in the plasma level as well as in gene expression(Lopez Assis et al., 9). The literature review components have also facilitated the analysis of different articles to demonstrate the presence of inflammatory properties in citrus juice. Through these studies, they were able to conclude that the inflammatory properties of citrus juice enhance the treatment and the prevention of chronic diseases.
Further, literature review asserts that orange juice could be used in the diet for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases because of its capacity to reduce inflammatory markers through bioactive compounds, such as the flavonoids hesperidin and naringenin( Yamada et al. 166). This was proved in a study that comprised of 19 non-diabetic subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) aged 27-56, compared with 12 healthy, non-obese control subjects( Yamada et al. 167). The study concluded that after consuming ROJ for a week, there was a reduction in inflammatory cytokines as well as oxidative biomarkers making it useful in treating chronic diseases. In addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, citrus products have been investigated in numerous studies for their potential benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk. A recent literature review evaluating studies using both citrus fruit juices and single citrus flavanone administrations suggested that citrus and its flavanones could be used as a nutraceutical approach to reducing cardiovascular disease risk, possibly due to their ability to positively influence cardio-metabolic parameters and lipid level reduction. The conclusion is sustained by the findings of a study of 10623 Japanese adults in the Jichi Medical School Cohort (Testai and Calderone 5). After an average follow-up period of 10.7 years, it was found that CVD incidence was lower among participants who frequently consumed citrus compared to those who do not consume citrus fruit frequently. In this study, citrus consumption appeared to be particularly useful in reducing the risk of cerebral infarction (Testai and Calderone 8-10). The potential cardiovascular benefit of citrus consumption has also been investigated in subjects at high risk for CVD. In a short-term cross-over trial, Buscemi et al. found that after seven days of supplementation with 500mL red, orange juice per day, high-risk subjects experienced improvements in their endothelial function, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers (Testai and Calderone 11). Taken together, these studies indicate the potential for citrus consumption to contribute to cardiovascular health among both healthy and high-risk adults.
Oxidative stress is connected to degenerative diseases like atherosclerosis, and it is recommended that the intake of antioxidants such as Mandarin juice may help in the reduction and the control of the disease. It was further investigated in a study that comprised of 48 children (22 girls, 26 boys) aged between 8 and 12 years referred for hyperlipidemia detected in a familial study (Stockman 354). During the study, it was recorded that the levels of oxidative were reduced and there was also a decrease in the peroxidation marker MDA. Mandarin juice has a high antioxidant effect due to the high level of hydroxyl activity hence decrease the levels of stress(Stockman 347). Taking the results into consideration, it was concluded that the consumption of mandarin juice in children with hyperlipidemia lowers blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, levels of the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA). However, it increased antioxidant levels and serum folate but does not significantly decrease basal serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, or the atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL-c) (Aptekman and Cesar 113). Further, the high levels of cholesterol also hurt the health of people, and this is the reason it is recommended that people should consume foods with low levels of cholesterol. Studies indicate that the long-term consumption of orange juice is linked to low levels of cholesterol as well as Apolipoprotein B among the hypercholesterolemic subjects) ( Aptekman and Cesar 116). The low levels of cholesterol are associated with reduced body weight as a result of OJ had lower total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio and apo B in comparison with normopolidemics without OJ consumption ) ( Aptekman and Cesar 119).
Nonalcoholic fatty liver acids are a dangerous metabolic disorder that has a tremendous effect on liver-related mortality and the cardiovascular (Salamone and Galvano et al 3862). The fats are closely associated with diseases like obesity, the spectrum of the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia. A recent study indicated that the consumption of orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice (Salamone and Galvano et. 3862). The investigation comprises eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and administrated water or Moro juice for 12 weeks. During the study, it was recorded a reduction in the cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum to the levels of lean control (Salamone and Galvano et. 3865). Further, the orange juice reversed most of the metabolic abnormalities exhibited by obese mice, including fatty liver. Moro juice administration also limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.
In the study to examine the relationship between vitamin C and the periodontics patients involved the 58 patients from 22-75 years old, 21 males and 37 females with chronic periodontitis (Salamone and Galvano et. 3866). It has also been proved that the consuming citrus juice helps in improving vitamin C status among the periodontitis patients. The periodontal condition is an inflammatory disease that results in the tissue damage that is caused by the pathogenic bacteria and the host immune response complicated reactions ( Staudte, Sigusch and Glockmann 213). In a study, 58 patients from 22-75 years old, 21 males and 37 females with chronic periodontitis were subjected to a study to determine the impacts of citrus juice on their health status. In the study, it was observed that there were low levels of vitamin C in the test group or the control group. These results indicate that the patients with periodontics indicated low plasma levels that were way below of the normal range. However, after consuming citrus juice, the level of Vitamin C increased that contributed to health improvement among the patients ( Staudte, Sigusch and Glockmann 215). The patients also have reduced levels of plasma ascorbic acid levels and that consuming at least two grapefruits on a daily basis improve the supply of Vitamin C that is important in managing the disorder (Staudte, Sigusch and Glockmann, 216). Citrus juice is also useful in dealing with the high tooth loss among the women and men who are older. Tooth loss is however linked to low intake of citrus juice and in the study that focused on 605 men and 664 women who were between 25 and 74 from North Glasgow. The tooth loss was a reflection of different variables that are connected to coronary diseases, and this is due to the low levels of citrus acid.
The nutritional content of citrus juice has made it one of the highly consumed fruits globally. Citrus juice is a reliable source of vitamin C, and like other foods, it comprises of essential nutrients such as glycaemic, non-glycemic carbohydrates, potassium, folate, phosphorus, sugar, riboflavin, magnesium, niacin, thiamin, fiber, and different phytochemicals. Citrus juice is also known to be nutritional adequacy and the inflammatory properties that have made it easy for the juice to treat and manage some chronic diseases. From the discussion, improving the diet content, citric acid has the vital nutrients that help in replacing the nutrients that are undertaken in the body which is essential in controlling the body weight. It is further proved that the potential for citrus consumption to contribute to cardiovascular health among both healthy and high-risk adults. Also, orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice, and consuming citrus juice helps in improving vitamin C status among the periodontitis patients.
Lv, Xinmiao et al. "Citrus Fruits as a Treasure Trove of Active Natural Metabolites That Potentially Provide Benefits for Human Health." Chemistry Central Journal 9 (2015): 68. PMC. Web. 25 June 2018.
O'Neil, Carol E., et al. "One Hundred Percent Orange Juice Consumption is Associated with Better Diet Quality, Improved Nutrient Adequacy, and no Increased risk for Overweight/Obesity in Children." Nutrition Research, vol 31, no. 9, 2011, pp. 673-682. Elsevier BV, doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.09.002.
Wang, Ying, et al. "Impact of Orange Juice Consumption on Macronutrient and Energy Intakes and Body Composition in the US Population." Public Health Nutrition, vol 15, no. 12, 2012, pp. 2220-2227. Cambridge University Press (CUP), doi: 10.1017/s136898001200742. Accessed 12 June 2018.
Rampersaud, Gail C., and M. Filomena Valim. "100% Citrus Juice: Nutritional Contribution, Dietary Benefits, and Association with Anthropometric Measu...
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