What were the reasons for the intensified warfare between Native Americans and settlers in New England in the late 1600s illustrated in the bloody King Philips War?
Native Americans tribes welcomed settlers enthusiastically in the late 1600s. The stable influx of settlers disrupted the lives of the natives. The settlers had appeared to secure their land and convert them to Christianity and used trade as a means of exploitation. Suspicion and hostility stemmed from the cultural and technological differences. Intertribal antagonisms exuberated the tensions. Schemes resented missionaries as intruders preparing to grab their lands. For example, conflict rose due to the differing opinions of land ownership especially in the areas of Massachusetts, and Dedham that capitalists had acquired from the natives. One major conflict occurred when John Oldham, an English trader, was killed by Pequot Indians. Thus, the New England colonies waged war and raised a militia against the Pequot. The militia destroyed a large Pequot village at Stonington and Connecticut (Foner, Eric, 456). The Pueblo Indians also rose against the New England colonies especially in the areas of Taos and New Mexico (Calloway, Colin Gordon, 162). Settlers also challenged the expansion of the settlers in three wars, leading to loss of their lands and defeat of the natives in the Tidewater region. The desire for more resources and land intensified the war further leading to an unsuccessful revolt against colonial authorities. Thus, the Indian warfare reflected European rivalries, which was common in the seventeenth century causing wars and conflicts.
What were the causes and effects of the 1676 Bacon Rebellion in Virginia?
A lot of factors led to Bacons Rebellion in Virginia in 1676. The farmers in Virginia revolted against William Berkeley because the colony was experiencing a number of challenges and problems. The prices of tobacco were low and the tax became high with a lot of competition from Maryland farmers in trade. Besides, there were a lot of hurricanes, floods, droughts and hailstorms which later the local Indians started to attack colonists. Thus, it was a belief that the governor was not doing enough to protect them thus they had to protect themselves against the Indians. The Indians and Governor Berkeleys troops were defeated in 1676 and burned the Jamestown, the capital (Billings, Warren, 63). The rebellion was therefore important as the Americans had a say in government and won the right to vote.
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History: Seagull Fourth Edition. Vol. 1. WW Norton & Company, 2013.
Calloway, Colin Gordon. After King Philip's War: Presence and Persistence in Indian New England. UPNE, 1997.
Billings, Warren M. "The Growth of Political Institutions in Virginia, 1676." The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History (1974): 225-242.
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