Chromosomal Abnormalities - Essay Sample

Published: 2023-12-27
Chromosomal Abnormalities - Essay Sample
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Biology Genetics Science
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 881 words
8 min read


Irregularities in the arrangement of chromosomes usually describe chromosomal abnormality. Abnormalities may occur when chromosomes are extended, turned upside down, switched to another chromosome, and when a chromosome is missing. Chromosomal abnormalities usually form either accidentally when either sperm or egg is being created or occurs at the early fetal development stages. Negative environmental conditions can exacerbate gene abnormalities. These chromosomal defects come with various negative impacts. The subject abnormality type usually determines the intensity of the defect (Lemacks et al., 2013). An abnormality such as Down's Syndrome can have various effects both in the early stages and in one's adult life. Some environmental factors contribute to the creation of chromosomal abnormalities. Controlling one's environment can reduce the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities.

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Effects of Chromosomal Abnormalities

The effects of chromosomal abnormalities vary based on the type of abnormality and age of the patient. For instance, a chromosomal abnormality such as Down's Syndrome has different symptoms for children than adults. The Down's Syndrome abnormality derails a child's brain development leading to mental and physical challenges. The above abnormality results in people with a lower IQ (a measure of intellectual capacity) (Lemacks et al., 2013). Their IQ level ranges between and including mild-to-low range.

As a consequence, to low IQ, people born with Down's Syndrome are slower in speech compared to other children. Some physical effects of the disease include small ears, small hands, and a flattened face. It is worth noting that Down's Syndrome is formed when chromosome number 21 is replicated; thus, its other name 'Trisomy 21'. The disease also causes other health-related issues such as ear infections, hearing loss, eye disease, and heart defects. There are financial problems too associated with the condition. It is worth noting that Down Syndrome is a life-long condition (Lemacks et al., 2013). Thus, it will require one to spend some significant amount of money for treatment. The disease should be tested early on so that its impacts can be ameliorated. Early diagnosis of the condition can help in improving the intellectual and physical statuses of children. Down Syndrome is also damaging to adults, especially women. Women with the above disease are usually not guaranteed successful pregnancies, as it is considered a major contributing factor to a significant number of miscarriage pregnancies globally. It is also worth noting that a condition such as Down Syndrome mal leads to other conditions such as autism spectrum disorders, vision problems, and hormonal issues.

How Environmental Factors Influence Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal conditions are sometimes influenced by infections, drugs, and radiation factors of the environment. The existence of chemicals in the environment increases the chance of genetic abnormality. Therefore, people should reduce the consumption of therapeutic drugs as they could increase the chances of Down's Syndrome in one's future generations. In most cases, environmental factors cause congenital disabilities. Insofar as pollutants are involved, some pathogens are considered contributing factors to the creation of chromosomal abnormalities. Additionally, conditions such as Aplastic Anemia is a chromosomal abnormality that emanates from the existence of chemicals and drugs in the environment. More specifically, a chemical such as Benzene is deemed to be the cause of the aforementioned Plastic Anemia condition (Lemacks et al., 2013). Humans mostly ingest the above chemical through the water. Clean water is, therefore, a solution to Plastic Anemia. The human lung disease is another example of a chromosomal condition influenced by the environment. in most cases, the condition originates from exposure to cigarette smoke. Therefore, environmental conditions are important factors to monitor for one to reduce their chances of passing a chromosomal abnormality to their incoming generations. In essence, the availability of Benzene or cigarette smoke force cells into an arrested state or cause them to die, leading to A Plastic Anemia and human lung disease (Lemacks et al., 2013). It is worth noting that the word environment's definition is circumstantial because, during fetal development, anything that comes from the mother is considered environmental. In that regard, the lack of folic from the mother could cause chromosomal abnormalities. Thus, the current high concentration of folic supplements for pregnant women.

Once a child is born with a chromosomal condition, social, environmental factors, the physical environment, financial status, and health and nutritional issues are important for positive cognitive development (Lemacks et al., 2013). The social environment constitutes family bonding, which is considered an imperative aspect of the child's mental development. Children can also be affected by the physical environment because their mental development will be influenced by the attention they give to their immediate environment. Financial issues are also environmental factors insofar as taking care of the child is concerned.


Chromosomal abnormalities are life-long conditions that affect a child through its adult life. Parents pass these conditions to their children, mostly unknowingly. These genetic abnormalities develop before or during fetal development. Effects of genetic conditions vary with age as children suffer from poor mental development while adults experience miscarriage and hearing loss. They are conditions that could be exacerbated by dangerous environmental conditions. Chemicals and infections in the environment could lead to increases in chances of culminating a chromosomal abnormality.


Lemacks, J., Fowles, K., Mateus, A., & Thomas, K. (2013). Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(8), 3465–3482.‌

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