|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Data analysis Forensic science Genetics|
Evidence is a case that is termed as the available data used for a conclusion or judgment basis. Evidence is based on the posing of questions and answers for better deliberation of information in a case. Evidence is used to signify that the answers derived are from a source of information on questions to be answered. The success of evidence depends on the reflection and analysis undergone by investigating agencies. The improvement of evidence depends on communication between the personnel and the judge in the case. Better communication boosts better reflection and analysis to be obtained. Suitable evidence relies on questions computed and thus making it reliable (Hsu, Huang, & Lai, 2019). Good evidence should have a good basis for the action to be improved. Therefore, good evidence should be relevant, short, actionable, and valid.
Case example of shoes
Class characteristics depend on physical evidence that is associated with a group of individuals but not one source. In the United States, the use of class features has been utilized to eliminate individuals in an investigation from being main suspects. Notably, the case of a person treated as a suspect and has been found to wear size 8 of the shoe and yet the impression shows he or she wears size 12. It shows that the person has the right to neglect the case. It is not logical for a person wearing show number 8 to steal shoes of number 12, and yet the soles may look alike. The judgment of the case based on the physical characteristics of the exhibit helps to identify thieves and leave the suspects.
On the other instance of having Panama soles by a suspect who happens to leave a pattern at a scene, it should be critically harnessed. The person might be having 8 pairs of shoes, and its sizes are 12, and in the event, one pair has Panama sole pattern. The only shoe used for investigation is the one with the Panama pattern since it exhibits the scene pattern left. The suspects in the U.S. tend to be released based on the evidential mechanism rather than the impression. Class characteristics of items are very key, therefore, since it determines the number of right and wrong suspects caught. Class characteristics, therefore, are very vital in reducing the number of suspects in a case and thus cannot be directed to one source or individual. Class features of evidence are used in evaluations of a case, and it exemplifies the intended purpose through dialogues to create relevance and meaning. It makes a case to be purposeful with designs based on questions and answers raised by the institution doing the case. The other feature is on the evidence being well reflected and interpreted for suitable data that is well analyzed and reviewed. It should also be presented and integrated into the context of creating a holistic view of a case. The last characteristic of evidence is on it being corroborated and cumulative through the utilization of many sources for evidence.
The relevancy of evidence is the extent to which the information presented on a court is substantial with practical items. Relevancy creates the tendency of the existence of a fact that has a consequence. It depends on the determination for the action to be either less or more probable if the evidence is removed. The judge in a court depends on the material placed evidence for a suitable decision to be reached. Relevancy of evidence is very vital in a case since the party with a complaint should have it well supported, for instance, to be substantial. All court cases depend on relevant evidence presented to the judge. An example of an irrelevant item is the one that involves a suspect that wears size 8 of shoes, and the impression of the sole left at the scene of a crime is size 12. The second example of an item that is irrelevant is judging a sole that is left in the scene as a Panama sole and the suspect may have a different type of a sole. Examination and evaluation of the items in these two scenarios defer, and the court-level dismissal of the case is very high. The items are irrelevant evidence, and thus they are deemed as immaterial, and thus the relation to the matter is different. At the time of trial, the irrelevant items are treated as irrelevant evidence, thus commonly disallowed or objected to by the judge. The Panama sole found at the scene is different from the one owned by the suspect, and thus the evidence is irrelevant. The size of the suspect may be 8, while the one left at the scene of a crime is 12, and this may be just an impression of class characteristics. Decision-making in a case depends on the argument or fact on the material presented.
Forensic databases in the U.S. are open to the correction and law enforcers for easy identification of unknown persons. The primary purpose of the development of forensic databases was the development of investigative tools that aid in the identification and solving of crimes. Forensic databases offer a platform for crime identification and easy location of missing individuals (Samuel et al. 2018). Forensic databases rely on the profiles of individuals and the typical searches that involve technology.
DNA traces are used for crime scenes, and thus the DNA records help the police in solving many investigations for particular crimes. The work of the police unit has been facilitated swiftly through the adoption of database forensics. The field of forensic databases has facilitated law enforcement and correctional units to work effectively. Forensic databases are linked to the creation of relevance to the field of medicine. Forensic database that is opened by the U.S to the law enforcers and correctional units include the Combined DNA Index System, Forensic Database Biometrics Table, and The U.S. National Missing and Unidentified Person System.
Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)
The first forensic database used is the CODIS, Combined DNA Index System. CODIS helps in the identification of unidentified persons and those missing through the linkage of computer technology and forensic science. The CODIS utilizes the forensic and offender indices for correlating various profiles.
Forensic Database Biometrics Table
The second forensic database is the Forensic Database Biometrics Table. The army uses this database in identifying the remains using blood groups of the missing individuals. The U.S. Army holds a database that has fingerprints that help in easy identification of people that are missing through biometrics. Most people tend to be found in accidental areas, and thus they should be well interpreted for the creation of a well-organized system for the identification of individuals.
The U.S. National Missing and Unidentified Person System
The third database used is the NamUs, The U.S. National Missing, and Unidentified Person System. The forensic profile of an individual is searched basing on the typical database. The NamUs is used as a tool for law enforcement. The NamUs remain the most relented database for matching the profiles of different individuals for easy identifying of missing persons.
Offender and forensic indices in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)
CODIS generates the investigation of different cases through the use of biological evidence that is retrieved from the crime scene. The CODIS is composed of two indices that include forensics and the one that pertains to the offenders. The forensic index contains the profiles that link serial offenders and crime scenes together. The investigation agencies own the forensic index, and they assess all the information about a case. The forensic index constitutes the DNA profiles co-pilled from crime scenes. The offender index constitutes of DNA profiles of persons convicted of sex offenses and violent crimes. Also, the forensic index utilizes the DNA database developed from DNA samples in a scene of the crime. The offender index, on the other hand, relies on the DNA database constituted from the DNA of criminals. The CODIS works through the compilation of both Forensic and offender indices to utilize computer software that automatically searches the indices (Rahmawati, Melfazen, & Umam, 2017). The DNA profiles play a critical role in the operation of the CODIS. The matches made between the offender indexes and forensic indexes help in providing information to the investigators through the identification of the suspected perpetrators. The matching of candidates is achieved through laboratory comparison of the profiles. The CODIS is well utilized for database initiatives in over 50 nations.
Evidence is very vital in case analysis, and thus its features remain very critical in the establishment of good judgment. The use of class characteristics of evidence presents the adoption of the use of more illustrative and valuable information. The use of material evidence helps in getting the information to be relevant and valid before the judge in the court. The forensic databases are opened for law enforcers and correctional units, thus help in determining the missing persons.
Hsu, W. Y., Huang, Y., & Lai, G. (2019). Reserve Management and Audit Committee Characteristics: Evidence from U.S. Property-Liability Insurance Companies. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 86(4), 1019-1043.
Rahmawati, D., Melfazen, O., & Umam, K. (2017). Android Base Mobile Banking Security Systems Using the 13 CODIS Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Verification. Advanced Science Letters, 23(12), 12400-12404.
Samuel, G., Howard, H. C., Cornel, M., van El, C., Hall, A., Forzano, F., & Prainsack, B. (2018). A response to the forensic genetics policy initiative’s report “Establishing Best Practice for Forensic DNA Databases.” Forensic Science International: Genetics, 36, e19-e21.
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